Nutrition & Food Sciences

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    Impact of room-temperature storage on the pecan kernel color, carotenoids, polyphenols, and physicochemical properties
    (American Chemical Society, 2023-05) Pham, Thi; Yusufali, Zahra; Wang, Xinwang; Kubenka, Keith; Du, Xiaofen
    This study aimed to investigate the changes in the pecan kernel color, carotenoids, polyphenols, and physicochemical properties during five months of storage at room temperature for five different pecan varieties. The results showed that the pecan kernel color darkened with a shift toward more red and less yellow during the storage. Additionally, the dorsal side of the kernel had a lighter color than the ventral side. Total carotenoids deceased from 92.0–118.8 to 45.2–101.9 μg/100 g of whole kernel, while total polyphenols had no significant differences (18.1–27.0 mg of GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/g of whole kernel) commonly. Three phenolics (gallic acid, catechin, and ellagic acid) were of 6.7–9.6, 31.4–46.7, and 11.7–16.2 mg/100 g of whole kernel and increased during storage. The pecan kernel moisture loss was significant, while the total lipids remained unchanged. Five texture parameters (hardness, toughness, slope, fracturability, and break) showed irregular changes. Genotypic variation was observed in all five varieties, although the storage was the main factor affecting the compositions.
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    Texture properties, crude fat, fatty acid profiles, total soluble solids, and total polyphenols for 21 pecan varieties and the effects of the harvest year
    (American Chemical Society, 2023-10) Yusufali, Zahra; Liu, Xuejun; Wang, Xinwang; Kubenka, Keith; Du, Xiaofen
    Research on pecan kernel texture and physiochemical properties is lacking, especially across various varieties and harvest years. This study investigated the kernel texture, crude fat, fatty acids, total soluble solids, and total polyphenols in 29 samples (21 varieties; eight from both of the two harvest years). The texture parameters measured were hardness (20.84–41.88 N), toughness (20.24–123.96 N·mm), slope (5.90–23.40 N/mm), fracturability (12.29–32.06 N), and break (1.76–5.66 mm). The crude fat was 68.26–77.43%. C18 fatty acids were >90% of the total, followed by C16 fatty acids. C18:1 ω9 (oleic acid), C18:2 ω6 (linoleic acid), and C18:3 ω3 (α-linolenic acid) were detected in minimal quantities. The total soluble solids were 4.17–7.39%, and the total polyphenols were 12.67–67.29 mg of gallic acid equiv/g of whole kernel for the 29 samples. Notable variety differences were observed in all measurements. Two-way ANOVA for the eight varieties showed significant variety and harvest year effects, with variety having the dominant impact on composition. This study could improve pecan variety selection and boost market value.
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    Exercise for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease
    (Elsevier, 2022) Tucker, Wesley; Fegers-Wustrow, Isabel; Halle, Martin; Haykowsky, Mark J.; Chung, Eugene H.; Kovacic, Jason C.
    Regular exercise that meets or exceeds the current physical activity guidelines is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Therefore, exercise training plays an important role in primary and secondary prevention of CVD. In this part 1 of a 4-part focus seminar series, we highlight the mechanisms and physiological adaptations responsible for the cardioprotective effects of exercise. This includes an increase in cardiorespiratory fitness secondary to cardiac, vascular, and skeletal muscle adaptations and an improvement in traditional and nontraditional CVD risk factors by exercise training. This extends to the role of exercise and its prescription in patients with CVDs (eg, coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, peripheral artery disease, or atrial fibrillation) with special focus on the optimal mode, dosage, duration, and intensity of exercise to reduce CVD risk and improve clinical outcomes in these patients.
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    Recent advances of Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of bacteria
    (Wiley, 2023) Rodriguez, Linsey; Zhang, Zhiyun; Wang, Danhui
    Rapid and sensitive bacteria detection and identification are becoming increasingly important for a wide range of areas including the control of food safety, the prevention of infectious diseases, and environmental monitoring. Raman spectroscopy is an emerging technology which provides comprehensive information for the analysis of bacteria in a short time and with high sensitivity. Raman spectroscopy offers many advantages including relatively simple operation, non-destructive analysis, and information on molecular differences between bacteria species and strains. A variety of biochemical properties can be measured in a single spectrum. This short review covers the recent advancements and applications of Raman spectroscopy for bacteria analysis with specific focuses on bacteria detection, bacteria identification and discrimination, as well as bacteria antibiotic susceptibility testing in 2022. The development of novel substrates, the combination with other techniques, and the utilization of advanced data processing tools for the improvement of Raman spectroscopy and future directions are discussed.
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    Evaluation of brewers’ spent grain on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults: Lessons learned from a pilot study
    (Elsevier, 2023) Schmidt-Combest, Shannon; Warren, Cynthia; Grams, Marley; Wang, Wanyi; Miketinas, Derek; Patterson, Mindy
    The beer industry generates large amounts of leftover barley called brewers’ spent grain (BSG). Fiber-rich grains like barley are associated with ameliorating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This randomized pilot study investigated the influence of daily BSG consumption for 8 weeks on lipid profiles, inflammation, and metabolic functions in healthy adults. Subjects (n = 37, 26 ± 4 y; BMI 23 ± 3 kg/m2) received muffins containing 8.3 g BSG or 0 g BSG daily for 8 weeks. Body composition, blood pressure, and fasting blood were collected at baseline and week 8. Gastrointestinal symptoms and Bristol stool scale ratings remained stable throughout the study in both groups. Dietary fiber intake increased in the BSG group (5 g/day; 26%; p = 0.003); however, there were no significant between-group effects on blood lipids, glucose, insulin sensitivity, C-reactive protein, body composition, or blood pressure. Consuming 8.3 g BSG for 8 weeks is well tolerated and improves dietary fiber intake but does not significantly impact CVD risk factors in this sample of healthy adults. Subject health status, sample size, and BSG flour substitution rate may support the lack of effect in the current study. Larger controlled trials are needed to understand the potential of BSG as a value-added ingredient and its impact on human health.
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    The Baby Bites Text Messaging Project with randomized controlled trial: Texting to improve infant feeding practices
    (AME Publishing Company, 2023) Davis, Kathleen; Klingenberg, Adyson; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Habiba, Nusrath; Gautam, Rupali; Warren, Cynthia; Yeatts, Paul
    Background: Rapid weight gain and overweight in infancy are associated with childhood obesity. Thus, effective, accessible interventions to promote healthy infant feeding practices to prevent early obesity are essential.
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    Effect of tryptophan catabolites on the development of heat resistance in Bacillus cereus spores
    (Faculty Press, Cambridge, 1970) Prasad, Chandan; Srinivasan, V.R.
    Ethyloxamate and nicotinamide inhibited the development of heat resistance and the biosynthesis of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (dipicolinic acid) in Bacillus cereus spores. Addition of quinaldic acid or hydroxyanthranilic acid to an ethyloxamate-grown culture resulted in an increase in the number of heat resistant spores. Nicotinamide induced heat sensitivity could be reversed to different degrees by the addition of kynurenine or xanthurenic acid. Explanations which may account for these observations are presented.
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    Free amino acids and volatile aroma compounds in watermelon rind, flesh, and three rind-flesh juices
    (MDPI, 2022) Du, Xiaofen; Davila, Mindy; Ramirez, Jessica; Williams, Cierra
    Watermelon rind is treated as agricultural waste, causing biomass loss and environmental issues. This study aimed to identify free amino acids and volatiles in watermelon rind, flesh, and rind-flesh juice blends with ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30%. Among the 16 free amino acids quantified, watermelon rind alone contained higher total amino acids (165 mg/100 g fresh weight) compared to flesh alone (146 mg/100 g). The rind had significantly higher (1.5×) and dominant amounts of citrulline and arginine (61.4 and 53.8 mg/100 g, respectively) than flesh. The rind, however, contained significantly lower amounts of essential amino acids. Volatile analysis showed that watermelon rind total volatiles (peak area) comprised only 15% of the flesh volatiles. Of the 126 volatiles identified, the rind alone contained 77 compounds; 56 of these presented in all five samples. Aldehydes and alcohols were most prevalent, accounting for >80% of the total volatiles in all samples. Nine-carbon aldehyde and alcohol compounds dominated both the flesh and rind, though the rind lacked the diversity of other aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, terpenoids, esters and lactones that were more abundant in the watermelon flesh. Watermelon rind was characterized by the major aroma compounds above their thresholds, including 17 aldehydes and six unsaturated nine-carbon alcohols. This study demonstrated the potential for rind as a food or beverage supplement due to its key features such as concentrated citrulline and arginine, relatively low odor intensity, and valuable volatiles associated with fresh, green, cucumber-like aromas.
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    Consumer expectation of flavored water function, sensory quality, and sugar reduction, and the impact of demographic variables and woman consumer segment
    (MDPI, 2022) An, Uijeong; Du, Xiaofen; Wang, Wanyi
    This study aimed to investigate consumer expectation of flavored water and potential consumer segments. The results showed flavored water was ranked the fourth most popular drink, after plain water, tea, and coffee, by 901 participants. Consumers highly expected functional flavored water with refreshing (87.4% selection), thirst-quenching (73.7%), and tasty (65.7%) qualities, containing vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, and providing energy. Expected flavored water sensory qualities included temperature (62.4%), flavor (52.4%), and sweet taste (47.4%); lemon, berry, and lime flavors were most preferred, while bitterness, irritation, astringency, and sourness were least preferred. Pure sugar and honey were rated highest as the sweeteners for flavored water. Likewise, consumers were mostly concerned with taste followed by calories. Single demographic variables (age, reported health condition, drinking frequency, educational level) significantly influenced (p ≤ 0.05) flavored water function, sensory quality, and sugar reduction expectations. Females had higher expectation of flavored water’s refreshing and antioxidant functions. Cluster analysis revealed two consumer segments. The younger, low-education, self-reportedly less healthy cluster (mainly college students) expected various functions and flavors such as low temperature, cooling taste, diverse flavors, and sweet taste (and disliked bitterness). The older, educated, employed, self-reportedly healthy cluster had lower expectations of flavored water functions, were less sensitive to bitterness, and preferred no sweetness or little sweetness. These findings provide informative data to establish marketing and sales strategies for promoting flavored water.
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    Abstract 145: Dietary intake and quality among stroke survivors compared to matched controls who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 1999 - 2018
    (Lippincott, 2023) Zoellner, Erika R.; Patterson, Mindy A.; Sharrief, Anjail Z.; Savitz, Sean I.; Tucker, Wesley J.; Miketinas, Derek C.
    Introduction: Nutrition is an important modifiable risk factor for the prevention and treatment of stroke. However, the examination of nutrient intake and diet quality in stroke survivors is limited. The purpose of this study was to estimate usual nutrient intake and diet quality in a nationally representative sample of US adults who have a history of stroke and compare to controls.
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    Cognition and brain oxygen metabolism improves after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss: A pilot study
    (Frontiers Media, 2022) Anwar, Nareen; Tucker, Wesley J.; Puzziferri, Nancy; Samuel, T. Jake; Zaha, Vlad G.; Lingvay, Ildiko; Almandoz, Jaime; Wang, Jing; Gonzalez, Edward A.; Brothers, Robert Matthew; Nelson, Michael D.; Thomas, Binu P.
    Objective: The primary objectives of this pilot study were to assess cognition and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) consumption in people with severe obesity before (baseline), and again, 2- and 14-weeks after sleeve gastrectomy bariatric surgery.
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    Sensory characteristics of high‐amylose maize‐resistant starch in three food products
    (Wiley, 2012) Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat
    Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products.
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    Metabolism of thyrotropin releasing hormone in brain extracts. isolation and characterization of an imidopeptidase for histidylprolineamide
    (Elsevier, 1979) Matsui, T.; Prasad, C.; Peterkofsky, A.
    An extract of porcine brain acetone powder incubated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; pGlu-His-ProNH2) produces acid TRH (pGlu-His-Pro), histidine, and prolineamide. Fractionation of the brain extract by DEAE-cellulose chromatography produces three protein fractions which metabolize TRH. The activity of these fractions was characterized using TRH with a 3H-label on the histidine or proline as well as [His-3H]His-ProNH2. Fraction I contains pyroglutamate aminopeptidase and Fraction II contains TRH deamidase. Fraction III was found to contain a previously unrecognized enzyme which cleaves His-ProNH2 to histidine and proline. The histidylprolineamide imidopeptidase has been characterized. A competition study using a variety of compounds containing histidine or proline suggests that the best substrates for the imidopeptidase contain a free alpha-amino group on histidine and a blocked carboxyl group on proline, as is found in His-ProNH2. A survey of a variety of polypeptide hormones indicates that many of them inhibit the imidopeptidase activity. A kinetic study of the inhibition of the enzyme by adrenocorticotropic hormone (1-24) shows that the inhibition by polypeptide hormones is noncompetitive. We hypothesize that pituitary hormones may stimulate the production of (cyclo)-His-Pro by inhibiting alternate routes of TRH metabolism.
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    Demonstration of pyroglutamylpeptidase and amidase activities toward thyrotropin-releasing hormone in hamster hypothalamus extracts
    (Elsevier, 1976) Prasad, Chandan; Peterkofsky, A.
    Using a radioimmunoassay method for thyrotropin-releasing hormone, the presence of thyrotropin-releasing hormone-metabolizing activity in various hamster tissues was demonstrated. While there was substantial activity degrading thyrotropin-releasing hormone in hypothalamus, there was a notable absence of such activity in pituitary. The enzymatic activity in the hypothalamus was shown to be soluble and separable into two fractions. Analysis of the metabolic products formed by the two enzymes indicated that one possessed an amidase activity (less than Glu-His-Pro-NH2 leads to less than Glu-His-Pro) and the other possessed pyroglutamylpeptidase activity (less than Glu-His-Pro-NH2 leads to less than Glu+His-Pro-NH2). Other peptides containing NH2-terminal pyroglutamic acid or COOH-terminal amide groups did not block the hydrolysis of thyrotropin-releasing hormone, suggesting that the enzymes were specific. Some inhibitors preferentially blocked the activity of one or the other enzymes. Of possible biological significance is the observation that thyroid-stimulating hormone inhibited the amidase activity while hydrocortisone inhibited the pyroglutamylpeptidase activity.
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    Involvement of the glucose enzymes II of the sugar phosphotransferase system in the regulation of adenylate cyclase by glucose in escherichia coli
    (Elsevier, 1976) Harwood, J.P.; Gazdar, C.; Prasad, Chandan; Peterkofsky, A.; Curtis, S.J.; Epstein, W.
    The nature of the interaction of glucose with toluene-treated cells of Escherichia coli leading to inhibition of adenylate cyclase was examined by the use of analogues. Those analogues with variations of the substituents about carbon atoms 1 or 2 (e.g. alpha-methylglucoside or 2-deoxyglucose) are inhibitory, and they are also substrates of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system. Analogues with changes in other parts of the molecule (e.g. 3-O-methylglucose or galactose), L-glucose and several disaccharides and pentoses, do not inhibit adenylate cyclase and are not substrates of the phosphotransferase system. This correlation suggests some functional relationship between the adenylate cyclase and phosphotransferase systems. Further studies were done with mutants defective in glucose enzymes II of the phosphotransferase system (designated GPT and MPT); these two activities are measured by phosphorylation of alpha-methyl-glucoside and 2-deoxyglucose, respectively. The wild-type parent phosphorylates both analogues, and both inhibit adenylate cyclase. In the GPT- mutant, alpha-methylglucoside does not inhibit adenylate cyclase and is not phosphorylated, while 2-deoxyglucose is inhibitory and phosphorylated. In the GPT- MPT- double mutant, adenylate cyclase activity is present, but neither alpha-methylglucoside nor 2-deoxyglucose inhibits adenylate cyclase, and neither sugar is phosphorylated. These studies demonstrate that glucose inhibition of adenylate cyclase in toluene-treated cells requires an interaction of this sugar with either the GPT or mpt enzyme II of the phosphotransferase system.
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    Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine from phosphatidylethanolamine by at least two methyltransferases in rat pituitary extracts
    (Elsevier, 1981) Prasad, Chandan; Edwards, R.M.
    Rat pituitary extracts contain at least two methyltransferases that methylate phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine using S-adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor. The first enzyme methylates phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidyl-N-monomethylethanolamine and has a high Km (40-42 microM) for S-adenosylmethionine, whereas the second enzyme(s) catalyzes two successive methylations of phosphatidyl-N-monomethylethanolamine to phosphatidyl-N,N-dimethylethanolamine and then to phosphatidylcholine and has a low Km (6.7 microM) for S-adenyl-L-methionine. The first enzyme is loosely bound to the membrane fraction; therefore it appears in both particulate (20,000 X g) and supernatant (20,000 X g) fractions, whereas the second enzyme(s) is tightly bound to the membrane and thus appears only in the particulate fraction. Both methyltransferases have two pH optima of 6.5 and 9.5 (9.5 activity greater than 6.5 activity) and they do not require Mg2+.
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    Initiation by methionine of mouse immunoglobulin light chain containing NH-2terminal pyroglutamic acid
    (Elsevier, 1975) Prasad, Chandan; Peterkofsky, A.
    The mechanism of biosynthesis of NH2-terminal pyroglutamic acid has been studied in a mouse plasmacytoma (RPC-20) which produces an immunoglobulin light (lambda) chain containing NH2-terminal pyroglutamic acid. To this end, initation of lambda chain synthesis in plasmacytoma cell suspensions has been investigated. The analysis of radioactive lambda chain synthesis by these cells was accomplished with an antibody preparation specific for the precipitation of lambda chain protein from total plasmacytoma protein. NH2-terminal analysis of plasmacytoma cells labeled with [35S]methionine showed that the ratio of radioactivity in NH2-terminal methionine to total incorporation in lambda chain was greater at 2 min of labeling than at 60 min. However, such a pattern of transient labeling of the NH2 terminus of the lambda chain was not obtained when cells were incubated with tritiated leucine, arginine, or tryptophan. The data indicate that methionine is the initiator amino acid for the synthesis of lambda chain containing NH2-terminal pyroglutamic acid.
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    The subcellular and organ distribution and natural form of histidyl-proline diketopiperazine in rat brain determined by a specific radioimmunoassay
    (Elsevier, 1980) Yanagisawa, T.; Prasad, Chandan; Peterkofsky, A.
    Histidyl-proline diketopiperazine is produced in brain as a product of the metabolism of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. A number of the previously observed central nervous system and pituitary activities resulting from an exposure to thyrotropin-releasing hormone appear to involve the conversion of the releasing factor to the cyclic dipeptide. In the present study, the development of a rabbit antiserum that is highly specific for histidyl-proline diketopiperazine is described; the antiserum has essentially no capability to bind thyrotropin-releasing hormone or a number of other related peptides. The antibody can also distinguish between the natural form of the cyclic dipeptide and a diastereomer containing D-proline. A procedure for extraction, with high yield, of histidyl-proline diketopiperazine from brain is described. With the aid of the specific antiserum it was found that the preponderance of the cyclic dipeptide in rat brain is bound to high molecular weight material, mainly in the range of Mr = 70,000; histidyl-proline diketopiperazine can be disassociated from this material by boiling in salt/methanol solution. The concentration of the dipeptide in rat brain is in the range of 275 to 565 pmol/brain, approximately 2.5 times the concentrations determined for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (113 to 210 pmol/brain). A study of the subcellular distribution of histidyl-proline diketopiperazine and thyrotropin-releasing hormone suggests that the releasing factor is concentrated in synaptosomal vesicles while the diketopiperazine is not. A determination of the regional distribution of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and histidyl-proline diketopiperazine indicated that both peptides are found in highest concentrations in pituitary and hypothalamus, but are detectable in other areas of brain as well.
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    Association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome components in prepubertal obese children (tanner stage I) from Nuevo León, Mexico - A preliminary study
    (BMC, 2017) Solis Perez, Elizabeth; González Medina, Mario Alberto; Lomeli, Manuel Lopez-Cabanillas; González, Verónica Tijerina; Pérez, Jesús Zacarías Villarreal; González, Fernando J. Lavalle; Imrhan, Victorine; Juma, Shanil; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Boonme, Kittipong; Prasad, Chandan
    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Previous studies in obese children demonstrating a positive association between serum uric acid (sUA) and components of MetS are confounded by lack of uniformity in age and pubertal status of children. Therefore, we have examined the role of sUA in MetS and its components in pre-pubertal children (Tanner Stage I, age ≤ 9 years).
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    Lifestyle and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) burden: Its relevance to healthy aging
    (Aging and Disease Editorial, 2014) Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Marotta, Francesco; Juma, Shanil; Vijayagopal, Parakat
    Uncontrolled continued exposure to oxidative stress is a precursor to many chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes, degenerative disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Of the many known mediators of oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are the most studied. In the present review, we have summarized current data on the origin of circulating AGEs, discussed issues associated with reliable assessment of its steady state level, and changes in its level with age and select metabolic diseases. Lastly, we have made recommendations about life style changes that may decrease AGEs burden to promote healthy aging.