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TWU values scholarship and creative works in support of the mission of the university. In such, Repository@TWU is a repository of scholarly products that inform the disciplines of academia and the larger community. Repository@TWU is another means of highlighting and disseminating scholarly contributions by providing free and unrestricted access to the TWU community and beyond.

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Maternal Reflections on Working from Home with Children during the Pandemic
(2023-06-26) Rosen, Lisa H.; Rubin, Linda J.; Sharbine, Mackenzie Beckmon
Due to widespread work and school closures during the early waves of the COVID-19 pandemic, many mothers were forced to work from home while supervising their children’s remote schooling. The current study examines maternal reflections on this period, focusing on the perceived impact of working in close proximity for both mothers and their children in the United States. Mothers reported that their children learned more about their job responsibilities since the onset of the pandemic compared to before it, which was likely due to children spending more time closer to their mothers while they worked. We used thematic analysis to examine mothers’ open-ended responses. Two overarching themes emerged. The first theme was that greater time together increases children’s understanding of working mothers’ role in the family, workplace, and community. The second theme was that observing one’s mother work from home can inform children’s future career paths. Mothers shared that this experience of learning about their mothers’ career enabled their children to better understand their perspective, which has the potential to be an empathy-building experience. Looking towards the future, this increased respect and empathy have the potential to improve relationship quality and help children view their mothers’ careers more favourably.
The influence of a preworkout energy drink (C4) on lower limb neuromuscular activation in healthy young adults
(2023-09-01) Rosario, Martin G.; Parks, Kaci; Rountree, Garett; De la Torre, Joe
Energy drinks (Edrinks) have a plethora of ingredients for the same objective, a burst of energy and improving mood among others. However, there are various Edrink brands with diverse ingredients and slightly different purposes, such as the C4 drink which is a pre-workout. This ingredient variation can provoke different neuromuscular balance and gait adaptations. Recent studies suggest that some ingredients in Edrinks can aid in muscle fatigue in lower limb musculature. To investigate the lower limb neuromuscular modification after edink (C4) consumption. Ten participants (1 male and 9 females) partaken in the study (age of 23.4 (+/- 2.95). Neuromuscular activation of leg musculature was measured during a single-legged balance test on a firm and foam surface, pre and post edrink. Balance tests were designed to engage diverse areas of the balance systems (visual, proprioceptive and vestibular) while studying the adaptations in lower limb muscles such as tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius. The main outcome of this study showed a trend towards greater onset, faster TP, and slower decay for leg muscles after edrink consumption. It seems C4 beverage provokes a faster and prolonged recruitment of the leg muscles. Future studies should look into the postural adaptations after the said drink.
Cardiovascular Responses in Physically Elderly Active People Living with HIV
(2023-07-27) Rosario, Martin G.; Kidwell, McKenzie; Nelson, Nicole
Cardiovascular system (CVS) problems are one of the various complications in people living with HIV (PLHIV). In PLHIV, the CVS' capacity to adapt to activities is inadequate. Purpose: To distinguish the responses of the CVS to a step test in physically active PLHIV. Results: Significant differences between resting HR and HR after the step test were identified, while there was no significant difference between recovery HR and HR at 76% capacity. Additionally, all cardiovascular measurements were significantly higher than the recovery heart rate. Conclusion: It appears that physically active participants are experiencing some degree of autonomic dysfunction. However, physical activity seems to help slow down common CV effects.
Gait-associated dynamic deviations during cognitive dual tasks in physically active adults living with HIV
(2023-11-15) Rosario, Martin G.
Introduction: Among Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) complications, individuals living with HIV experience cognitive deterioration that could influence gait and balance in this group. To identify gait variations during dual cognitive tasks equaled to single tasks in those living with HIV. Material and methods: 11 females and 18 male adults (age, 60.31 ± 7.82) diagnosed with HIV were recruited for the current investigation. The study instructed participants to walk 7 meters (single tasks), and the same distance while counting backward from 100 by 3 (dual cognitive tasks). During the activity, parameters, such as gait speed, stride length, and postural sway were gathered with six motion analysis sensors. Results: A significant reduction in cadence (single tasks: 108.6 ± 16.7, dual tasks: 92.3 ± 25.9; p < 0.001), gait speed (single tasks: 0.98 ± 0.28, dual tasks: 0.78 ± 0.31; p < 0.001), time during swing phase percentage (single tasks: 38.7 ± 3.9, dual tasks: 35.3 ± 7.9; p < 0.05), single-limb support time (single tasks: 38.2 ± 3.9, dual tasks: 35.4 ± 7.9; p < 0.05), and stride length (single tasks: 1.1 ± 0.2, dual tasks: 0.95 ± 0.3; p < 0.05) were observed during dual cognitive tasks when compared to single tasks. Conclusions: Gait-associated dynamic alterations were revealed as a compensatory strategy to adapt to the requirements of dual cognitive tasks for those living with HIV, even when physically active. We advise physicians to investigate the cognitive characters of all individuals with HIV, regardless of the status of the condition.