Recent advances of Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of bacteria
Rapid and sensitive bacteria detection and identification are becoming increasingly important for a wide range of areas including the control of food safety, the prevention of infectious diseases, and environmental monitoring. Raman spectroscopy is an emerging technology which provides comprehensive information for the analysis of bacteria in a short time and with high sensitivity. Raman spectroscopy offers many advantages including relatively simple operation, non-destructive analysis, and information on molecular differences between bacteria species and strains. A variety of biochemical properties can be measured in a single spectrum. This short review covers the recent advancements and applications of Raman spectroscopy for bacteria analysis with specific focuses on bacteria detection, bacteria identification and discrimination, as well as bacteria antibiotic susceptibility testing in 2022. The development of novel substrates, the combination with other techniques, and the utilization of advanced data processing tools for the improvement of Raman spectroscopy and future directions are discussed.