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ItemSitting Bull, Buffalo Bill, and Native American Stereotypes(2014) Monterrosa, Marcello; Candelario, RosemarySitting Bull was a great Sioux warrior, holy man and Chief who resisted white culture and domination in the 1800s. The chief was invited by William Cody, aka “Buffalo Bill,” to join the Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show for the 1884‐85 season. The association between Sitting Bull and Cody can be complex and given to debate, but the effect of Sitting Bull’s participation in the Wild West show upon stereotypes of Native American’s in popular culture are profound. Whether Sitting Bull’s participation was beneficial, exploitative, or one of empowerment, his participation in the Wild West Show connected Native Americans with stereotypes that would follow them for more than a century. In this poster presentation, I will be analyzing the effects of Sitting Bull’s Wild West Show legacy in relationship to Native American popular culture stereotypes. ItemAlternative Periodic Tables(2014) Peng, EmilyOver 200 years since the creation of the periodic system, it would not be surprising to see more variations or completely different versions of the periodic table. Some examples of these innovative ways people thought of to organize the elements are featured and evaluated on this poster. Of course, these are only a small sum of a vast number of alternative periodic tables out here today. ItemEffect of Framing on Public Opinion of Minimum Wage by the Mass Media(2014) Lindsay, Cassidy; Edwards, Tiffany; Knabe, Albert J.; Adaway, SoniquaDuring President Barack Obama’s 2014 State of the Union Address, he claimed that he would issue an Executive Order to increase the national minimum wage for federally funded employees. This increase would raise the minimum wage from $7.25 per hour to $10.10 per hour. Given this recent push to raise the federal minimum wage, the effects of mass media on public opinion toward this issue is increasingly relevant. Has framing by news outlets influenced public opinion on increasing minimum wage? To answer this question, the two surveys conducted contained three parts each, including basic demographic questions to gauge the personal background and political leanings of each participant, excerpts from framed articles about the proposed increase in minimum wage, and last, questions designed to allow research to be conducted on the responses of the participants to the issue after exposure to the media frames. Participants are introduced to the issue through a different political frame, either in support of or in opposition to the political policy issues regarding the proposed increase in minimum wage. This research demonstrates that the politically framed topic of minimum wage influences the opinion of the participants, supporting the claim that mass media can influence public opinion through the presentation of frames to news audiences. ItemChanging the Perception of Chemistry through Community Outreach: Inspiring Future Scientists(2014-03) McKim, Mikeal; Buxton, Alexander; Feyen, Jessica; Sandoval, Esmeralda; Ibarra, Carely; Sotelo, Chris; Gajewski, Monica; Moreno, Jessica; Slavens, Kerri; Mirsaleh-Kohan, NasrinThe Kappa Epsilon Mu (KEM) Club at Texas Woman's University (TWU) plays an integral part of our Denton campus and local community. As a student organization representing TWU, our goal is to inspire the next generation of scientists by presenting the fascinating aspects of chemistry through exciting visual demonstrations and other community activities. The TWU KEM club helps sponsor several special events on campus as well as taking our “KEM to U” show on the road to local elementary, middle and high schools. We have also started our “Calculate it Forward” campaign. This campaign allows students, faculty and community members to donate their unused calculators, so KEM club can then provide them to a community organization or school in need. Through our efforts we will continue to educate and inspire future scientists by sharing our knowledge and passion for chemistry with the students and community. ItemHow Student-Teacher Relationships Influence School Climate: A Literature Review(TWU Research Symposium, 2014-04) Larson, AmyStudent-teacher relationships contribute to the phenomenon of school climate (Fan, Williams, & Corkin, 2011; Lee, 2012; Thapa, Cohen, Guffey, & Higgins-D’Alessandro, 2013). A considerable amount of research has focused on factors having an effect on school climate. This study examines the research literature addressing student-teacher relationships, student perceptions of school climate, and effective teaching styles while identifying how these factors affect school climate. A database search and a hand search were completed to identify and select articles focusing on aspects of student-teacher relationships and how they affect school climate. Findings suggest student perceptions, gender, race, disability, and family risk factors to be influences on student-teacher relationships, in turn, influencing school climate. Implications for educators and future research are also discussed. ItemStructural and Thermodynamic Studies of the i-Motif of DNA: Sequence Context Effects(Texas Woman's University, 2014-04) McKim, Mikeal; Buxton, Alexander; Metz, Amanda; Johnson, Courtney; Alvarado, Mayra; Stone, William; Sheardy, Richard DeanThe telomere, located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes, consists of tandem repeating nucleic acid bases. The G rich strand, with a (TTAGGG) repeat, of the human telomere has a C-rich complimentary stand (a CCCTAA repeat). Former investigations performed on a DNA oligomer possessing the G-rich repeat indicated that it folds into what is known as the G-quadruplex, where the GGG segments form tetrads, and the TTA segments are loops that join the tetrads together. While under acidic conditions, the C-rich strand has also been shown to form a unique structure known as the i-motif. Investigated here is the conformations formed from synthetic DNA oligomers of general sequence (CCCXXX)4, where X= A and/or T, when in the presence of K+ buffer ranging in pH from 7.0 to 5.0. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra were determined at different solution pH and temperatures to investigate the pH and temperature dependence of the folding of these sequences into i-motifs. ItemLower-limb dynamics in two approaches of stair descent initiation: walk and stand(Texas Woman's University, Denton, 2014-04) Ketki Rana; Kunal Singhal; Sangwoo Lee; Young-Hoo KwonThe purpose of this study was to study the effects of different stair descent strategy on peak joint moment and peak joint power in healthy young adults. Fourteen healthy young subjects (8 males and 6 females) performed the stair descent. Walk approach included the component of level walking and stair walking. Stand approach included the component of only stair walking. A three-step stairway with a walkway was used for the motion trials. Significant difference was found in hip abductor moments, knee extensor moment and knee eccentric power between the two approaches. No significant difference was found for any variable between the genders. Stair descent initiation with walk approach requires larger hip and knee dynamics than stand approach in both the genders in order to achieve a safe stair descent. ItemBullying of Students with Disabilities in Physical Education: A bibliometric analysis (1988 to 2013)(2014-04-08) Pan, Cheng-ChenThe purpose of the bibliometric study was to determine the quantity and quality of research on bullying of students with disabilities in physical education through a trend analysis. Using this research method, the initial search related to the key terms of- “bullying” and “physical education” which resulted in 3,146 articles in four databases (EBSCOhost, ProQuest, Scopus, and Science Direct ) from 1988 to 2013. Of the 3,146 articles , 223 (14%) articles were related to bullying students with disabilities in physical education. Eight articles met the selection criteria to further evaluate the levels of quality and evidence using Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT, 2004). Based on the SORT, eight articles (4%) out of 223 articles were rated low because of the quality of study and level of evidences. In addition, seven (88%) were rated as having a low quality of the research design and five (63%) with a low level of evidence to support the finding for 3 related to SORT. It was concluded that there is little research in the literature (1988-2013) and of the 8 used questionnaires or descriptive research designs, instead of using a highly evidence-based research design ItemEffects of Different Exercise Environments on Perceived Exercise Affect for an Adult with Cerebral Palsy(2014-04-08) Pan, Cheng-Chen; Davis, RonPurpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of different exercise environments (public vs non-public gym) on perceived exercise affect (feelings) for an adult with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The Physical Activity Affect Scale (PAAS) was used once a week for seven weeks to assess the pre-post perceived exercise affect. Results: The results of this study indicated highly positive exercise affects in either environment . However, the increase of perceived exercise affect in the public gym setting was greater than non-public environment prior to exercising. Conclusion: Both environments impacted perceived exercise affect; the public exercise setting may have increased a greater positive influence. Additional research is needed to further determine the effects of exercise setting on exercise induced affect for persons with disabilities. ItemInfluences of a Token Economy Reward System with Visual and Verbal Cues on Treadmill Walking Time for an Adult with Autism and an Intellectual Disability(2014-04-08) Pan, Cheng-Chen; Adams, David; Kim, KyungjinThe purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a token economy reward system with visual and verbal cues on treadmill walking time for an adult diagnosed with autism and an intellectual disability. An A1-B-A2 single subject design with a changing criterion method was used in a home setting. In Phase A1 (baseline), there was no reinforcement or visual and verbal cues provided during treadmill walking. During the B Phase (intervention) a token economy reward system was initiated when desired walking time was achieved within every trial during the B Phase visual and verbal cues were provided. During the A2 Phase, as in the A1, there was no reinforcement or visual and verbal cues provided during treadmill walking. Based on the results of this investigation, the average walking time within the Phase B compared to the Phase A1 increased 176% (14.7 to 26 min.) Without reinforcement in the A2 Phase the participant‘s walking time decreased 76% (35.4 to 8.5 min.) compared to the B Phase. Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that the use of reinforcement combined with visual and verbal cues were highly effective in increasing the targeted walking time. ItemAn in Depth Look at Heterosexual Single Parent Dating and the Effects on Children(2014-04-09) Anderson-Burdine, Adrienne; Armstrong, Joyce ItemCharting a Green Path Ahead: Texas Woman’s University’s Journey to Sustainability(Student Creative Arts & Research Symposium, 2014-04-09) Caltrider, David; Springer, Emily; Sheardy, Richard DeanThree years ago Texas Woman’s University took to heart the American Chemical Society’s goal to become completely sustainable within 150 years. Ever since then, we as a university have been working toward a more environmentally friendly, sustainable laboratory environment. This semester, more time is being devoted to this goal. We have successfully completed a semester of organic chemistry using numerous “green” experiments, begun integrating discussion topics and green chemistry curriculum into the organic chemistry laboratory, are working toward being recognized by the ACS as a green chemistry chapter, integrating microwave chemistry into different chemistry courses and faculty research, and formulating a path towards our ultimate goal—complete sustainability. Faculty and students are committed to this goal in an unprecedented manner. Our hope is to become an institution that other universities look to as a role model and leader of how to become sustainable and environmentally conscious, without sacrificing scientific education. ItemThe importance of M140 and M141 protein complex in mouse Cytomegalovirus(Texas Woman's University, 2014-04-15) Madrid, Carla; Bolin, Lisa; Hanson, Laura K.Cytomegalovirus can be harmless to most but harmful to those with comprised immune systems. Between 50 to 80 percent of adults in the United States are infected by the age of 40. Once CMV is in a person's body, it stays for life. When studying the virus we work with mice cells. Since the human virus only infects people, a model of the closely related mouse virus is used. There are two viral genes which affect the severity of infection in the host, which are Protein M140 and Protein M141. In order for pM141 to avoid degradation, it must be bonded to pM140. Previous work has identified a 74 amino acid region of pM140, if it gets knocked out, it will cause the complex to bind but not protect. We are working to identify what part of this region is required for pM140 to stabilize pM141, by making smaller deletions. ItemSEPARATION AND ANALYSIS OF COTTONSEED OIL DEODORIZER DISTILLATE (CODD) USING MOLECULAR DISTILLATION(2014-05-01) Jafri, Aniqua; King, Dr Clay; Vowell, Bob; Casper, DavidA molecular distillation (MD) method was developed to separate the unsaponifiables from Cottonseed oil deodorizer distillate (CODD), which contains free fatty acids (FFA), mono/diglycerides, tocopherols and sterols. Using a model KDL6 MD glass still with a 0.06 m2 evaporator, five passes were conducted using different evaporator temperatures and with the condenser temperature held at 60°C and vacuum at 0.22 mmHg. With the feed rate of 0.2 kg/hr, at a temperature of 60°C, samples of the CODD were separated into the distillate and residue portion. Using a gas chromatography silylation method, quantification of the components was determined. The pass 4 distillate was composed of 90.8% of FFA and 4.3% of unsaponifiables and the residue had 63% unsaponifiables. Using this residue for stage-2, unsaponifiables were 84.5% of the distillate while the residue had 97.14% diglycerides. Molecular distillation is a solvent-free process, avoiding problems with toxicity. This laboratory method using a 2-stage process successfully distilled the unsaponifiables from the components of CODD and distilled the valuable tocopherols and sterols and the FFA. ItemLEARN BY DOING: MICROSCOPIC STUDIES OF A PLANT PARASITE, ORANGE RUST, GYMNOCONIA SP. (PHRAGMIDIACEAE)(2015) Monterrosa, Marcello; Maier, CameliaMicroscopy is an exciting, hands-on, active learning resource for students that can inspire a lifelong interest in science. As part of the Quality Enhancement Plan entitled ‘Pioneering Pathways: Learn by Doing’ at our University, an ecology class project was developed for use of different forms of microscopy to study the ecological relationships between Mock strawberry and its parasite. Orange rust is a common disease of both wild and cultivated Rosaceae. Samples of Mock strawberry leaves infected with the fungus were observed using light and electron microscopes. Microscopy analyses revealed the presence of spores with spiky surfaces in leaf lesions. This project helped me 1) develop scanning electron microscopy skill and 2) understand the adaptations of Orange rust for dissemination and the parasitic relationship between Mock strawberry and Orange rust. ItemPedagogy, Art and Poetry: The Beautiful Side of Teaching(2015) Monterrosa, MarcelloThe catalyst of ongoing, enduring, self-perpetuating cycles of learning becomes the highest form of expressive art. Memorable experiences, activities, and words can add the artistic aspect and heart to teaching. Carefully chosen poetry has the potential to engage readers’ minds to produce powerful emotional and sensory reactions (Myers, 1997). To a sampling and examination of the most recent and best practices research from Grant Wiggings, Alfie Khon, Robert J. Marzano and others, this presentation intends to introduce a collection of some original and existing poetry and expressive writing to define the art that surrounds the heart of teaching and learning process. Poems and expressive writings, mine and others, can help us relate to those human values that help us build rather than destroy each other, and give voice to the challenge and exhilaration of learning. ItemFinancial literacy: How it affects the choices families make about their finances(2015-04-13) Ramoni, FranciscaThe current economic environment has fostered a major concern about Americans financial security, especially for those who lack the skills and resources to withstand the financial market downswings. Financial literacy is an essential tool in aiding individuals makes informed choices about their finances. Financial Literacy as a construct is a fairly new development, financial education as an antidote to poor financial decision making is not. Financial literacy programs in schools are aimed at improving financial literacy from an early age. Financial Literacy as a construct is a fairly new development, financial education as an antidote to poor financial decision making is not. Policy initiatives to improve the quality of personal financial decision making through financial education started in the last century, when states mandated inclusion of financial education topics in schools from K-12 educational curriculum. ItemBiomechanical Knee Risk Factors Between Horizontal and Vertical Landing Conditions.(2015-04-15) Vining, Melissa; Neally, Ashleigh; Fuller, Kaitlyn; Lee, Sang WooThe purpose of this experiment was to determine biomechanical risk factors for knee injury between horizontal and vertical landing conditions. This experiment was performed using a 3 dimensional motion camera system, reflective markers, and two force plates. There were twelve participants who were all physically active females age 18-25. They each performed three vertical and three horizontal landing trials. The variables analyzed included ground reaction force which was used to calculate loading rate, knee orientation angle, and sagittal and frontal joint knee moment. It was found that loading rate was higher in the horizontal component; there was greater knee flexion angle in the vertical direction. Varus knee moment was greater in the horizontal direction, and greater knee extension moment in the horizontal direction. In conclusion, the horizontal landing conditions result in greater risk of knee injury. ItemWorking Memory, Attention, and Processing Speed Predict Academic Achievement(2015-11-05) Jones, Alicia; Spurgin, Angelia; Miller, Daniel; Maricle, Denise E.The purpose of this study was to determine if the relationship among working memory, attention, and processing speed differentially contributes to areas of academic achievement (i.e., reading, writing, mathematics, and oral language). It has been found that working memory, attention, and processing speed often influence each other (Baddeley, 2003; Burns, Nettelbeck, & McPherson, 2009; Vergauwe, Camos, & Barrouillet, 2014). The literature also suggests that working memory, attention, and processing speed differentially impact various areas of academic achievement (Kail, 2007; Miller, 2013). A study conducted by Fournier (2014) indicated a significant relationship between working memory and attention that was predictive of other cognitive processes. The current study focused on the collective impact of all three neurocognitive constructs on academic achievement to determine if similar results would be observed.