Influences of a Token Economy Reward System with Visual and Verbal Cues on Treadmill Walking Time for an Adult with Autism and an Intellectual Disability
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a token economy reward system with visual and verbal cues on treadmill walking time for an adult diagnosed with autism and an intellectual disability. An A1-B-A2 single subject design with a changing criterion method was used in a home setting. In Phase A1 (baseline), there was no reinforcement or visual and verbal cues provided during treadmill walking. During the B Phase (intervention) a token economy reward system was initiated when desired walking time was achieved within every trial during the B Phase visual and verbal cues were provided. During the A2 Phase, as in the A1, there was no reinforcement or visual and verbal cues provided during treadmill walking. Based on the results of this investigation, the average walking time within the Phase B compared to the Phase A1 increased 176% (14.7 to 26 min.) Without reinforcement in the A2 Phase the participant‘s walking time decreased 76% (35.4 to 8.5 min.) compared to the B Phase. Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that the use of reinforcement combined with visual and verbal cues were highly effective in increasing the targeted walking time.