ItemInvestigation into the current practices in the identification of the eligibility and assessment of 3-year-old early childhood intervention programs in the public schools(1998-05) McCormick, Lois; Kinnison, Lloyd; Shertz, Linda; Marshall, David ItemA qualitative study of selected demographic characteristics, generation of birth, and birth order on the stated purpose and goals for money usage among college studets and their parents(1998-08) Dilworth, Jennie; Martin, Jennifer; Engelbrecht, JoAnn; Fannin, Ronald; Chenoweth ItemParental perceptions of developmentally appropriate practice in an early childhood program(1998-08) Douglas, Mary ItemFeminine interests and influences in early English periodicals(1936-08) Hefley, Gladys; Elllison, L.M. ItemCharacteristics possessed by students holding places of Leadership in the Texas State College for Women(1933-06) Turner, Gladys; Moore, L.H. ItemFactors relating to the prevalence of autism(1996-12) Spencer, Kathleen M.; Kinnison, Lloyd; French, Ron; Broome, KirkThis study examined the relationships between socioeconomic, cultural, and ethnic variables on the rates of autism reported by the states. Each state and The District of Columbia was included in the sample $(N=51).$ A latent structural relations statistical analysis was conducted to analyze the data for goodness-of-fit to the theorized model. The variables studied as influences on the rate of autism were childhood poverty, ethnicity, access to psychological/psychiatric services, and access to advocacy, specifically geographic access to Autism of America members. The theory tested whether these variables affected the rates of autism reported by the states in their annual reports to Congress. The variables associated with the increased rate of autism included Latino ethnicity as well as access to autism advocacy groups. Using goodness-of-fit statistics to analyze the model, 49 states had a good fit with the proposed model. A modification of the model also found a relationship between the 1994 rate of autism and membership in the Autism Society of America. The perfect fit of the data (GFI = 1.000) was in a modification which included all the states and proposed a direct relationship between Latino proportionality in the population and the rate of autism in 1994. In that model, when the proportion of Latino children is proportionately large, the rate of autism reported by the states is higher $(p<.05).$ These findings have implications for further research and study. The influence of socioeconomic and sociocultural factors on the labeling and education of children should be monitored closely. There is ample evidence to suggest that the disability categories of IDEA are replete with over- and under-representation difficulties. This study would suggest that those same difficulties, particularly ethnicity, may well be influences in the labeling of children as autistic. ItemPersistence in honoring self as expressed in the lives of ordained Southern Baptist women(1995-05) Morrison, Karen Lyn; Engelbrecht, Jo Ann; Jennings, Glen; Fannin, Ronald; Williams, JoyceThe purpose of this study was to examine the lives of selected women in search of clues as to what enabled some of them to persist in pursuit of their self-defined life purposes despite opposition and resistance to that pursuit. The research process combined information from previously-gathered oral histories with data from newly-conducted in-depth interviews of 20 women whose "call," seminary training, and ordination equipped them for pastoral ministry within the Southern Baptist denomination. The research questions focused on these women's perceptions of their calls, their expectations regarding opportunities to fulfill those calls, and their experiences in attempting to do so. Emergent themes from the analysis related to common developmental experiences and influences as well as similar individual characteristics. A life course perspective was utilized to assess the interaction of individual characteristics with family, community, and societal influences during a particular historical period. The women's perceptions and experiences of family, church, seminary, and career were traced from childhood to the present. The accounts revealed the discrepancy between these women's anticipated response to call (opportunities to serve in Southern Baptist pastoral ministry) and their actual experiences (opposition to their seeking certain pastoral roles or positions). The overarching theme was one of struggle to reconcile the women's understanding of their purpose with the realities of their circumstances. The major contextual themes which emerged included multiple family connections and loyalties; contradictory messages of affirmation and discrimination; struggles between conservative patriarchal tradition and evolving feminist understanding; and a struggle between response to either an internal or an external locus of control. In an effort to analyze which individual characteristics or experiences contribute to persistence, the findings are interpreted through the following developmental perspectives: ecological, focusing on mesosystemic linkages; moral, focusing on the ethic of care, self-in-relation, and contextual interpretations; and Erikson's issues of trust, generativity, and integrity. Issues of ego strength, hardiness and resilience are also discussed. ItemAdaptation in American Indian families: Perceptions of older women(1999-05) Watson, Julie Reed; Hildreth, Gladys; Armstrong, Joyce; Fannin, RonThe purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how older American Indian women perceive adaptation to a dominant society and its influences on American Indian family life. The subjects were 10 American Indian women from 50 to 78 years of age, from Ardmore, Oklahoma and the Dallas-Fort Worth areas. The study investigated perceptions held by women about dominant society influences on American Indian family life, traditions, and values. The nine themes that resulted from semi-structured interviews were: (a) importance of education; (b) value of job and employment opportunities; (c) teaching, speaking, and listening to Indian language; (d) attending tribal functions to maintain cultural identity; (e) sharing stories, ceremonies, and traditions with children; (f) adjusting to dominant society; (g) need for dominant society to be more knowledgeable about American Indians; (h) responsibility to the family; (i) less commitment to traditional American Indian family lifestyle. Two additional findings were: (a) influence and changes of American Indian youth and (b) losing American Indian identity. ItemEffects of interpersonal skills training on nurse aides' client care(1997-05) Carpenter, Miriam; Roebuck, Flora Nell; Windham, Robert; Schwalm, FritzThe purpose of this study was to determine whether nurse aide students who received 8 hours of didactic/experiential training in interpersonal skills would learn and use them effectively in offering patient care. Forty-four volunteer students from six classes were designated as experimental, while 73 volunteers from six other classes were designated as comparison. The samples primarily included females of diverse ethnicities between the ages of 18 and 47. Pre- and posttest instruments were administered to the experimental and comparison groups. The first two were self-assessments designed to explore interpersonal skills, self-knowledge, and the attitudes and feelings of nurse aides toward clients in a nursing home. A checklist to evaluate the use of interpersonal skills in the clinical area was completed by the students' practicum supervisor and a 1-month follow-up on-site observation report was completed by the employer to evaluate the use of interpersonal skills on the job. A pilot study was conducted to validate instruments and the procedures. This study was guided by five hypotheses which stated there would be a significant difference between experimental and comparison groups in these areas: (1) Attitudes toward clients. (2) Ability to communicate effective levels of interpersonal skills. (3) Ability to communicate effective levels of interpersonal skills. (4) Interpersonal skills utilized in clinical nursing performance. (5) Employer follow-up ratings of client care. Significant differences were not found for the first three hypotheses. Part of the reason could be that the nurse aide students reported high positive attitudes in the pretest. Significant differences were found for the remaining two hypotheses. It was concluded that nurse aides who had received specific training in interpersonal skills more frequently used them in patient care than did the comparison group they were rated higher in on-the-job performance. The study supported the need for research and development of nurse aide interpersonal skills training as a matter of priority for health care educators and researchers. ItemThe effects of district size, administrative training, and years of experience on the discipline of students who have been identified as special education(1997-08) Haggerty, Paula; Irons, Jane; Marshall, David; Hresko, Wayne; Fritsch, Ron; Stone, HowardThe issue of disciplining students with disabilities has always been controversial and has frequently led to uncertainty among school administrators and teachers regarding proper procedures. The Individuals With Disabilities Act does not specifically address discipline therefore inconsistencies and improper procedures can and do occur. In addition, national and state emphasis on school violence issues has resulted in the revision of legislation and policies regarding disciplining of all students, including those receiving special education services. Although administrators and school officials report that the complicated process of disciplining students with disabilities hinders their ability to respond appropriately in issues regarding school safety, there is a significant absence of data to substantiate this. The purpose of this study was to determine if the independent variables of district size, administrative training, and years of administrative experience had any effect on secondary administrators knowledge of or practices related to the disciplining of students who had been identified as receiving special education services. Data were obtained through a survey questionnaire distributed to a randomly selected population of secondary school administrators in various size districts across all geographic regions of the state of Texas. Respondents remained anonymous and participation was strictly voluntary. A total of 365 surveys was distributed with 209 returned, yielding an overall rate of return of 44%. A majority of respondents was male Caucasians, between the ages of 36 to 55, working as assistant principals. There were 40% of the respondents who reported no college credit in the area of special education, with a majority reporting only 1 to 12 clock hours of training. District size was determined to be the most significant variable analyzed by a chi-square analysis of data. Larger districts were more likely to offer less traditional discipline alternatives for special education students. Although a majority of responding administrators indicated knowledge of the 10 cumulative day recommendation for suspension a total of 56% reported inaccurate responses. Only a small majority of administrators indicated that current regulations hinder their ability to discipline students receiving special education services. Results suggested that further research is needed to more accurately determine administrators ability to provide a safe school environment while attempting to adhere to laws and regulations concerning the disciplining of students receiving special education services. In addition, issues emerged which indicated a need for required yearly training for administrators in the area of special education. ItemA comparison of the learning styles of at-risk students and students not at risk(1991-08) Stayer, Bonnie L.; Evenson, Merry; Anderson, RuthThe purpose of this study was to compare the learning styles of at-risk students and students not at risk. The procedure followed was first to obtain permission from the Human Subjects Review Committee, the high school principals, and the principal of the at-risk program to administer a learning styles inventory. students in regular English classes (i.e., not honors or basic classes) volunteered by returning permission forms signed by themselves and a parent or guardian. The principal of the at-risk program required all of the students in the program to take the survey, therefore, permission forms were not signed by these students and their parent or guardian. The Learning Style Profile was administered to both groups of students. Data were analyzed by a multivariate t-test, using the BMPD program. No statistically significant difference was found between at-risk students and students not at risk in any of the categories included in the profile. The lack of statistical significant differences between these two groups in this study which is in contradiction to the results of several studies found in the literature would indicate the need for further research. ItemSelf-esteem of elementary students: Effects of gifted program nomination and selection(1997-05) Smith, Jeanetta Stripling; Gershner, Vera; Stone, Howard; Lundsteen, SaraThis study examined the possible effects on the self-concept of (a) students nominated and accepted into a gifted program, and (b) students nominated and not accepted, as measured by pre- and post-tests on the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. The subjects for this study were the 207 third-, fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students referred for screening for a district's gifted program. A pre-test using the Piers-Harris Scale was given in conjunction with the district's gifted program screening procedures. After student notification of acceptance or non-acceptance, the post-test was given. It was hypothesized that there would be no significant difference in the post-test mean scores of students accepted into the gifted program (Group I) and students not accepted (Group II). An analysis of covariance was used to test the hypotheses. The hypotheses examined differences by group, gender, grade, and individual sub-tests of the self-concept scale. Null Hypothesis I of no significant difference in the post-test mean scores of the subjects in Group I and Group II using the pre-test as a covariate was rejected at the.02 level. Students not accepted (Group II) had significantly higher self-concept scores than Group I. Null Hypothesis 2 of no significant difference in the post-test mean scores by gender was rejected at the.004 level. Males accepted into the gifted program scored significantly lower than males not accepted. Males accepted scored significantly lower than both females accepted and females not accepted. Null Hypothesis 3 of no significant difference in the scores by group by grade level was accepted. Null Hypothesis 4 of no significant difference in the scores by group by sub-test was accepted on all sub-tests except for "Behavior", which was rejected at the.003 level. The results of this study indicate that the students' self-concepts were not diminished by non-acceptance into the gifted program. Since the accepted students' lower self-concept scores may be short-lived, giving an additional post-test after approximately a year is recommended. ItemRisk-taking propensity of successful and unsuccessful Hispanic female entrepreneurs(1992-05) Jover, Margaret Anna; Impson, June; Chenoweth, Lillian Cochran; Jennings, GlenThe purpose of the study was to compare how the risk-taking propensity of successful Hispanic female entrepreneurs differed from unsuccessful Hispanic female entrepreneurs. Also investigated were the dynamics of age, marital status, educational attainment, business training, amount and source of start-up financing, previous business experience, length of business ownership, and type of business owned on the risk-taking propensity of the two groups of Hispanic female entrepreneurs. The number of women-owned small businesses has increased dramatically during the last decade, yet their businesses are more likely to fail than the national average within the first year of operation and almost half fail within the first four years of operation. Therefore, there is considerable risk in starting a new business--both financially and personally. Risk-taking propensity has been linked to business success. The ability to identify risk-taking propensity and the characteristics affecting risk-taking propensity will provide the female entrepreneur information important to her decision to become an entrepreneur. Through these means, the female entrepreneur can increase her probability for success. Hispanic female entrepreneurs from a tri-county area in South Central Texas were interviewed and a modified version of Kogan and Wallach's (1964) Choice Dilemma Questionnaire administered to determine risk-taking propensity. Multivariate analysis and correlations were used to analyze the data. The instrument was factor analyzed. There were no significant differences in the risk-taking propensity of the two groups. With the successful group of entrepreneurs, risk-taking propensity was found to be significantly related to age, source of start-up financing, and informal training with insurances. With the unsuccessful group of entrepreneurs, risk-taking propensity was found to be significantly related to informal business training in credit. ItemMaintaining the cultural capital: A study of 22 Hispanic families(1995-05) Scantlebury-McDonald, Placida; Lazarus, Peggy; Stone, Howard; Lundsteen, SaraThe purpose of the study was to identify and describe values and characteristics of the families of Hispanic children who had been labeled "at risk." Research questions considered demographics, values and norms of behavior, and education. The most significant questions were what kinds of cultural, educational, professional, and social activities do parents perform? What are the values that parents would like to preserve and how is this preservation encouraged? What are the parents' expectations of education and what strategies are in place to help the children learn? The subjects were parents, family members, and the children who were in the researcher's classroom in kindergarten during the school years 1991-1992 through 1993-1994. Researcher and participants shared similar cultural background. The study used qualitative and quantitative design and triangulation of the results, based on the literature review, observations, and interviews. The findings showed only one family headed by a single parent, only one unemployed parent, and high expectations about children's education; and the preservation of values and norms of behavior through established home activities. The implications were that there is a great cultural capital and diverse funds of knowledge awaiting teacher's discovery, that teachers could uncover this knowledge and gather it into the classrooms and use it to complement traditional instruction. The writer feels that these children would not be "at risk" if teachers learn about and include in their instructional practices the use of the cultural capital and the families' funds of knowledge. ItemParental influences in getting children "ready to learn"(1996-05) Stevens, Brenda Cook; Lazarus, Peggy; Marshall, David; Davis, Ruth; Lundsteen, SaraThis research project examined the effects of parent-child reading sessions have on Head Start children's language development. The subjects for this study were 16 Head Start students and parent pairs. The control group was 16 randomly selected non-participating Head Start students. The researcher instructed the parents in training sessions in techniques of reading with children. The treatment was the parents' subsequent reading to their children at home. The researcher used Gardner's (1990) Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test and Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test for the pre-and post-test with the experimental group. The experimental group and the control group were tested using the Developmental Profile II. A survey was given to each parent at the first training session. Data were analyzed in two ways, The survey and training session results were reported qualitatively and the pre-and post-tests results were reported using quantitative methods of ANOVA and post hoc sign test. Based on statistically significant (at.05 level) post hoc test results, the reading project was effective. Encouraging interaction between the child and the parent during reading have positive effects on language development. It would seem that the attitude of participating parents about reading to their children did change. A limitation of this study was the low participation rate of the parents. Future research is needed on ways to build parental involvement in reading with children. ItemMarital interaction and coping when middle-aged, white-collar husbands are downsized: An ethnographic study of wives' experiences(1997-12) Carraway, Vivian Lorraine Graham; Hildreth, Gladys; Jennings, Glen; Thomas, FrankThe purpose of this research was to describe the experiences of wives whose white-collar husbands had been downsized in middle-age. The study employed ethnographic techniques, interviews with wives, to learn about their perceptions of change in the marriage subsequent to downsizing. It also sought to describe any practical and/or psychological techniques by which wives coped during the unemployment period. Wives responded to open-ended questions read from an ethnographic interview form. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed for common themes, using qualitative methodology. A pilot study of 2 wives was conducted to determine the efficacy of the research approach and the response-depth of the questions. After results from the pilot study were deemed successful, the researcher conducted an additional 8 interviews. In total, 9 interviews are included in this study. Data from the interviews were systematically analyzed and categorized. Major themes that emerged from wives' descriptions included financial issues, husbands' increased presence at home, and wives' changed perceptions of security, stability, and locus of control. There were 4 additional major themes including communications impasses, stable marital quality, sources of support, and wives' self-care and growth. ItemMiddle adolescents' recollections of early child-care experiences(1999-12) Wallace, Angela; Engelbrecht, Jo Ann; Chenoweth, Lillian Cochran; Fannin, RonThis qualitative research study examined middle adolescents' recollections and perceptions of their early child-care experiences. The participants were 25 middle adolescents between the ages of 14 to 17, inclusive, who attended Texas Woman's University's Child Development Center for at least 2 years during 1985–1990. Data were collected during semi-structured interview sessions. All of the adolescents had recollections of their early child-care experiences. When recalling a first memory of the Child Development Center, they remembered playing or an emotion. They recalled relationships with caregivers and peers, the physical environment, activities, special events, and different emotions. Overall, their perceptions of the Child Development Center were positive and they gained valuable experiences. The adolescents did not remember many stories retold to them about their experiences of child care. The adolescents' memories emphasized a caring, learning, and fun environment at the Child Development Center. Parents and child-care-center professionals can benefit from the adolescents' responses. ItemAn investigation of clients' perception of humor and its use in therapy(1996-05) Bennett, Carl Edward; Goldsmith, Elaine; Engelbrecht, JoAnn; Jennings, GlenThe purpose of this study was to describe clients' perception of their experiences with humor in therapy. Previous research on the issue focused on therapists' views. Literature indicates humor can be beneficial in coping with stress but its use in therapy continues to be controversial. This researcher investigated clients' perception of humor in therapy through ethnographic interviews with 30 adult clients currently attending therapy. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed through a phenomenological process, seeking meanings clients gave to their experiences. The results provided clients' definitions of humor, awareness of humor, and evaluations of experiencing humor in therapy. The 11 therapists of participating clients reported using some humor in therapy, even though none had any training in its use. Most therapists expressed caution in using humor in therapy but evaluated it as helpful to change clients' moods or perceptions, to relieve stress and tension, or to improve the therapeutic relationship. Clients' comments were extremely positive concerning their experiences of humor in therapy. They defined humor as a shared experience between therapist and client that may be spontaneous or a planned activity that results in laughter and smiles. It provides relief from tension and may sometimes be used as a defense mechanism or weapon. Clients conclusively reported an awareness of humor experienced, even though some had difficulty recalling examples. Those who recalled a lack of humor in therapy evaluated that experience negatively. Analysis of clients' evaluation of experiencing humor in therapy provided nine themes: (1) Humor Helped Clients Change Behavior in a Positive Manner; (2) Humor Improved the Relationship Between Client and Therapist; (3) Humor Helped Clients Continue Therapy; (4) Humor Reduced Tension or Stress; (5) Humor Changed Clients' Perceptions; (6) Humor Reduced the use of Defense Mechanisms or Opened Clients to New Ideas; (7) Humor Was Evaluated Positively; (8) Humor Was Evaluated Negatively; and (9) Humor Was Not Experienced in Therapy. Clients' positive evaluation of humor in therapy supports previous literature encouraging its use and indicates therapists may assist clients in reaching their goals for therapy through the inclusion of humor as a therapy technique. ItemExploring participation in a first-grade multicultural classroom during two literacy events: The read aloud and the literature dramatization(1998-12) Haag, Claudia Christensen; Griffin, Margaret; Spicola, Rose; Allen, DianeThis study was undertaken to uncover participation patterns during two literacy events, the read aloud and the literature dramatization, in a multicultural first grade classroom. The population included one first-grade teacher, 2 high verbal students, 2 low verbal students, and 2 ESL students. Questions guiding the research were what constituted participation in each event and how participation differed from one event to the other. Data were collected for a 16-week period. Categories and codes were identified for both the read aloud and literature dramatization events. In the analysis, structures of participation were enumerated. Next, read aloud behaviors or the dramatization behaviors were analyzed. Finally, evidence of constructing story knowledge was analyzed. Findings indicated that the teacher was receptive to student turntaking and response, she guided and directed both events through verbal and nonverbal modes, and she elicited response in constructing story knowledge. The teacher showed more director talk, was more explicit with directives, and guided through her participation as an actor and a critic in the dramatizations. Eliciting response to construct story knowledge was higher in the dramatization for one area, negotiates story but was higher in the other two categories, analyzes story and links/connects story, in the read aloud event. All 6 subjects had an increase in verbal participation in the literature dramatization behaviors compared to the read aloud because of the expansion in dramatization behaviors to include director, critic, and actor participations. Under constructing story knowledge, talk surrounding all three categories (negotiating story, analyzing story features, and linking or connecting the story) was frequent and deliberate in the read aloud event. In the dramatization event, the only category to have high participation rates was negotiating story, where students were asked to recall or improvise lines. The read aloud event allowed for talk surrounding constructing story knowledge, providing the foundation for the dramatization scripts that were collaboratively negotiated with the teacher. In literature dramatizations, all students, but especially the ESL students, were allowed a wider array of participation opportunities, and during the one analyzed event, both ESL students increased their quantity and quality of participation.