Education and Human Ecology

Permanent URI for this collectionhttps://hdl.handle.net/11274/11395

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    Codependency: An enigmatic disease a review of the literature
    (1993-08) Jackson, Carolyn; Engelbrecht, JoAnn; Martin, Jennifer; Fannin, Ronald
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    Intervention with children of divorce in school settings
    (1992-12) Gray, Kathy; Reynolds, JoLynne; Martin, Jennifer; Anderson, Ruth
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    Perceptions of adolescents toward teachers with physical challenges
    (1995-05) Beattie, Marie; Hayes, Marnell; Fritsch, Ronald; Hamilton, Basil; Thomas, Carol
    The purpose of this study was to consider the impact of a physically challenged teacher's disability on the students in the classroom. Attitudes of junior and senior, male and female high school students toward their physically challenged teacher were analyzed. It was hypothesized that the attitudes of male and female students in both grade levels would reflect that having a teacher with a disability had affected their lives in a positive fashion. A questionnaire was developed using a 5-point Likert-type scale to assess the attitudes of students in grades 11 and 12 in four North Texas high schools. Responses to the six questions most directly related to the hypothesis were compared according to male students by grade, female students by grade, all students by grade, and all students by gender. The six questions analyzed by the above variables were: (a) Does your teacher keep the classroom under control? (b) Is your teacher able to handle physically violent behavior of students? (c) Do you think you have learned to handle life better because you have had a disabled teacher? (d) Does the disability have a negative affect on the way you feel toward your teacher? (e) Are you more helpful and cooperative because your teacher has a disability? and (f) Are you better able to understand disabled people (in society) because of your teacher? The study clearly showed that the 11th- and 12th-grade students surveyed held positive attitudes toward their physically challenged teacher. The majority of students expressed confidence in the teacher's ability to control the classroom and manage behavior, with seniors showing more confidence than juniors, and females more confidence than males. Most students responded that having a teacher with a disability had affected them in a positive way, with seniors being more positive in their responses than juniors. All students, particularly female juniors, felt that they were better able to understand individuals with disabilities, senior males were more positive in their response. The main hypothesis of the study was confirmed.
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    The use of therapeutic metaphors to reduce stress in children
    (1995-05) Banks, Roscie; Lazarus, Peggy; Stone, Howard; Marshall, Dave; Rusher, Anne
    This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of therapeutic metaphors as a form of classroom intervention for reducing stress in children. Participants were 76 second graders, ages 7 to 8, in 2 elementary schools in the same district. There were 8 possible second grade classes (4 classes from each school); however, for this study only 6 classes were involved as follows. The control group was one of the four classes in one school. Treatment group A was chosen from the remaining three classes in the same school, and treatment groups B and C were students in the 2 intact second grades in the other school. Using a pre-test/post-test control group design, the treatment groups were read metaphors in the form of stories twice a week for 9 consecutive weeks. Story selections were based on the anxiety factors on the Child Anxiety Scale (1980). The Child Anxiety Scale (Gillis, 1980) was the instrument used to test the hypotheses. There were three levels of treatment. Treatment group A received a pre-test, 3 weeks of metaphors, and a post-test at the end of 3 weeks; treatment group B, received a pre-test, 6 weeks of metaphors, then, post-test. Treatment group C received a pre-test, 9 weeks of metaphors, then a post-test. The Control group was pre-tested, received no treatment, then post-tested at the end of nine weeks. Analysis of data was conducted through Analysis of Covariance with the pre-test, held, as the constant covariate. Area exams through analysis included gender, time levels, and stress in response to the use of therapeutic metaphors in stress reduction. The results from this study revealed that there was a statistical difference in the time between the 3 and 6 and the 9 weeks periods due to the effect of treatment. Second grade children responded positively to story telling as a method of intervention in learning new ways to adapt and/or resolve stressful situations, according to the Child Anxiety Scale.
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    Parenting values, skills, practices, and education preferences of black parents and extended family members
    (1995-12) Armstrong, Joyce; Chenoweth, Lillian; Hildreth, Gladys; Martin, Jennifer
    This qualitative study examined via focus groups and interviews, parenting values, skills, practices, and methodology of parenting education preferences of Black families in North Central Texas (Dallas area). A total of 38 parents (kin and non-kin extended family members) participated in 4 focus group sessions. Five focus groups participants participated in follow-up interviews. Participants were recruited through referrals and personal invitations from a Dallas area church, child-care center, and community-based recreation center. Focus group discussions were conducted to generate information using 31 open-ended and direct questions on parenting values, skills, practices, and preferred parent education methodology. Interviews were conducted to probe previous answers given in the focus group sessions. A 7-item quantitative survey was administered to gather family demographic information. Discussion sessions and interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Findings addressed the common themes and patterns reflecting parenting values, skills, practices, and parent education methodology preferences. Findings indicated (a) that Black families have a strong commitment to parenting; (b) that Black families have a strong sense of parental responsibility; (c) Black families are supported by extended family members, and influenced by religiosity, family, and friends; and (d) that Black families socialize their children to live in dual environments (i.e., Black and White). Findings also revealed specific parenting education preferences.
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    Emotional indicators disclosed during the debriefing process in the figure drawings of child-witnesses of domestic violence
    (1998-12) Pascoe, Diane
    The purpose of this study was to identify emotional indicators (Koppitz, 1968) found in the figure drawings of a sample of child-witnesses of domestic violence between the ages of 6 to 12 years. The study conformed to a qualitative design to facilitate the collection of rich, in-depth data from the children. The study was a phenomenological examination of the symbolic meanings embedded in children's figure drawings. It was anticipated that the use of drawings would afford the children the opportunity to “show,” rather than “tell,” about distressing experiences during the debriefing process, and this proved to be accurate. Children were requested to complete a series of seven therapist-directed illustrations. Verbal commentary offered by the children was recorded by the researcher who administered the instruments. A pilot study was conducted on 3 child-witnesses of domestic violence to determine the practicality of subject compliance to the researcher's directives, and to test the ability across cohort groups to follow through on the task. Results of the pilot had a positive outcome; therefore, the study was implemented according to design. For the main research, data were collected from 24 children at each of three pre-selected sample domestic violence treatment sites. Next, content analysis was performed on each of the drawings in the series to identify the emergence of Emotional Indicators (Koppitz, 1968) in the children's work, and to note major themes previously mentioned in the literature review. As a group, the sample disclosed more than the average number of “expected” emotional indicators, implying that the experience of witnessing domestic violence by a child induces a degree of emotional reaction. In some children, this reaction is classified as a trauma response. In general, the study revealed that the greatest proof of the internalization of the experience of witnessing domestic violence was demonstrated in the youngest and minority children. Content analysis of the gender groups did not confirm a large gender gap suggestive of males' particular difficulty with experiencing domestic abuse, as has been largely referenced in previous literature.
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    Employers' current perceptions of job skill levels of vocational adjustment class employees
    (1998-08) Schmittou, Diana
    The intent of this study was to examine employers' and vocational adjustment class instructors' perceptions of the academic, self-help, and job skills of special education students in vocational placements. The study intended to compare the perceptions of the employers with the perceptions of the vocational adjustment class instructors. This study did not produce the intended results because of the poor rate of return of completed questionnaires. In light of the recent focus and additional requirements for transition planning and the additional requirements for high school graduation, perceptions from employers concerning the job skills of special education students in job placements is vital to insure appropriate vocational planning and training for each special education student. Thus, additional research to gather information from employers should be conducted. In addition, research to study the certification requirements, educational training, and need for continued training for vocational adjustment class instructors also should be conducted.
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    Investigation into the current practices in the identification of the eligibility and assessment of 3-year-old early childhood intervention programs in the public schools
    (1998-05) McCormick, Lois; Kinnison, Lloyd; Shertz, Linda; Marshall, David
    Early Childhood Intervention has gained momentum since the inception of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Under House Bill 105-17, a child referred for services must be tested and placed by his third birthday. This created concern for public schools as to transition and programs. Statewide surveys were sent to directors of special education to obtain their perceptions of current trends and issues related to early childhood special education. The majority of respondents were females ages 46 to 59 who have been Special Education Directors for less than 5 years. Most districts have half-day 3-year-old programs with staff trained in special education. In line with literature review, children have been assessed by a person trained in testing young children with speech delays. Emerging issues were communication between interagencies and district personnel, concern for new curriculum, eligibility for public school 3-year-old programs, increasing severity of developmental delays, and demand for related service.
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    A qualitative study of selected demographic characteristics, generation of birth, and birth order on the stated purpose and goals for money usage among college students and their parents
    (1998-08) Dilworth, Jennie; Martin, Jennifer; Engelbrecht, JoAnn; Fannin, Ronald; Chenoweth
    The purpose of this study was to explore the influences on the formation of money purposes and goals using a qualitative method. Little published research pertaining to the formation of money purposes and goals is available. Goal-setting and perceived purposes for allocating money may influence an individual's relationship with money and money-related behaviors. A purposive sample of 75 college students and 75 of their parents was obtained. Three research questions guided the study: (a) How do selected demographic variables influence money purpose and goals? (b) how does generation of birth influence money purpose and goals? (c) how does birth order influence money purpose and goals? Data were collected by means of written responses to open- and closed-ended questions in a survey format. The findings of the study revealed that respondents held specific goals for the use of their money, and they perceived various purposes for money. Respondents indicated preferences for money purposes/goals relating to the necessities of life and providing security for self and family. Savings and luxuries also were common purposes/goals and four money philosophies were identified. Debt was a less common theme, and charity was listed by few respondents. Trends in theme preferences were explored for respondents grouped by selected demographic variables (ethnic identity, current and birth family gross income, gender, marital status), generation of birth, and birth order. Few notable differences emerged for theme preferences among groups. Parents indicated greater interest in retirement savings whereas students more often listed general savings in their responses. White respondents preferred educational themes, yet the sub-theme of student loans was more common among African Americans. Males indicated greater interest in providing security for self and family and retirement savings. No male respondents proposed a charity purpose/goal for money. Similar theme preferences were observed for respondents classified in the birth order positions of oldest male and female, youngest female, and only male and female listed similar themes/sub-themes.
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    Parental perceptions of developmentally appropriate practice in an early childhood program
    (1998-08) Douglas, Mary
    This research examined parental perception of developmentally appropriate practice in a program accredited by the National Association for the Education of Young Children. The 79 parents surveyed had children enrolled in an accredited corporate child-care center in the North Texas area. Five key areas or dimensions of developmentally appropriate practice were examined through a revised Developmentally Appropriate Practice Survey created by Wise (1993). The revised edition (1997) of Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs provided five interrelated guidelines or key areas that "inform the practices of early childhood educators" (p. 16). The revised survey grouped the 24 statements into the following five areas: Establishing reciprocal relationships with families; Creating a caring community of learners; Teaching to enhance learning and development; Constructing appropriate curriculum; Assessing children's learning and development. The purpose of the survey was to determine the parents' levels of understanding. The Likert Scale scoring resulted in a mean score between 1.0 and 4.0 for each survey statement. Scores also were averaged for each of the five key areas. Results indicated the highest level of understanding in the area related to establishing reciprocal relationships with families. The area with the lowest level of understanding related to assessment of children's learning and development. The highest mean score for an individual statement was 3.88 related to "hands-on learning." The lowest individual score of 2.02 was related to the use of workbooks and worksheets as a learning tool. The findings will be used to plan and develop parent programs to increase understanding in these areas.
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    Measurement of giftedness of elementary school children and identification of Black or Hispanic educationally disadvantaged gifted children
    (1991-05) Jordan, Cathy
    This descriptive study evaluated the utilization of alternative matrices for identifying gifted and talented students, kindergarten through grade five in one school. This study compared the identified gifted students to those potentially gifted educationally disadvantaged minority students who had been excluded from the gifted program in the sample school because of their COGAT scores on the district matrix. The sample of 38 first through fifth grade students included 23 students in the gifted program and the 15 Black or Hispanic students who had been recommended and tested for the gifted program but did not qualify. The children were evaluated and assessed on two different identification matrices. Matrix A included the IOWA Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS, Reading Comprehension and Math Total Scores), the cognitive Abilities Test (COGAT), a Student Writing Product or Parent Nomination, a Teacher Nomination, and a Student Interview. Matrix B included the same instruments and tools except for the substitution of the Ravens Standard Association of Colleges and Schools. The elementary and middle schools are located throughout the district to provide neighborhood schools. Students are selected randomly for the two high schools in October of their eighth-grade year. The two schools are located on the same block in the central part of the district. In addition to a quality education for kindergarten through 12th grade, the district offers a prekindergarten for low income and limited English-speaking four-year-olds, which is housed on three campuses. The district Community Evening School offers adult classes, including a GED program, each semester and during the summer. Houston Community College uses one high school as a campus in the evening. St. Thomas University teaches ESL certification courses in district facilities. Serving a population of approximately 200,000 residents, the district provides opportunities and involvement for the entire community. The current student enrollment in the district is 29,894. Table 12 indicates the ethnic distributions for both the district and total elementary enrollment. Of this total enrollment, the ethnic distribution is (a) White 38%, (b) Hispanic 19%, (c) Black 24%, and (d) Asian: 19%. The total minority percentage is 62%. Table 13 indicates the NSLP enrollment for the district, total elementary, and the sample school population. As indicated, the sample school percentage of disadvantaged students is higher than both the elementary and district percentages.
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    Feminine interests and influences in early English periodicals
    (1936-08) Hefley, Gladys; Elllison, L.M.
    No abstract available
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    Characteristics possessed by students holding places of Leadership in the Texas State College for Women
    (1933-06) Turner, Gladys; Moore, L.H.
    No abstract available
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    Persistence in honoring self as expressed in the lives of ordained Southern Baptist women
    (1995-05) Morrison, Karen Lyn; Engelbrecht, Jo Ann; Jennings, Glen; Fannin, Ronald; Williams, Joyce
    The purpose of this study was to examine the lives of selected women in search of clues as to what enabled some of them to persist in pursuit of their self-defined life purposes despite opposition and resistance to that pursuit. The research process combined information from previously-gathered oral histories with data from newly-conducted in-depth interviews of 20 women whose "call," seminary training, and ordination equipped them for pastoral ministry within the Southern Baptist denomination. The research questions focused on these women's perceptions of their calls, their expectations regarding opportunities to fulfill those calls, and their experiences in attempting to do so. Emergent themes from the analysis related to common developmental experiences and influences as well as similar individual characteristics. A life course perspective was utilized to assess the interaction of individual characteristics with family, community, and societal influences during a particular historical period. The women's perceptions and experiences of family, church, seminary, and career were traced from childhood to the present. The accounts revealed the discrepancy between these women's anticipated response to call (opportunities to serve in Southern Baptist pastoral ministry) and their actual experiences (opposition to their seeking certain pastoral roles or positions). The overarching theme was one of struggle to reconcile the women's understanding of their purpose with the realities of their circumstances. The major contextual themes which emerged included multiple family connections and loyalties; contradictory messages of affirmation and discrimination; struggles between conservative patriarchal tradition and evolving feminist understanding; and a struggle between response to either an internal or an external locus of control. In an effort to analyze which individual characteristics or experiences contribute to persistence, the findings are interpreted through the following developmental perspectives: ecological, focusing on mesosystemic linkages; moral, focusing on the ethic of care, self-in-relation, and contextual interpretations; and Erikson's issues of trust, generativity, and integrity. Issues of ego strength, hardiness and resilience are also discussed.
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    Adaptation in American Indian families: Perceptions of older women
    (1999-05) Watson, Julie Reed; Hildreth, Gladys; Armstrong, Joyce; Fannin, Ron
    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how older American Indian women perceive adaptation to a dominant society and its influences on American Indian family life. The subjects were 10 American Indian women from 50 to 78 years of age, from Ardmore, Oklahoma and the Dallas-Fort Worth areas. The study investigated perceptions held by women about dominant society influences on American Indian family life, traditions, and values. The nine themes that resulted from semi-structured interviews were: (a) importance of education; (b) value of job and employment opportunities; (c) teaching, speaking, and listening to Indian language; (d) attending tribal functions to maintain cultural identity; (e) sharing stories, ceremonies, and traditions with children; (f) adjusting to dominant society; (g) need for dominant society to be more knowledgeable about American Indians; (h) responsibility to the family; (i) less commitment to traditional American Indian family lifestyle. Two additional findings were: (a) influence and changes of American Indian youth and (b) losing American Indian identity.
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    Risk-taking propensity of successful and unsuccessful Hispanic female entrepreneurs
    (1992-05) Jover, Margaret Anna; Impson, June; Chenoweth, Lillian Cochran; Jennings, Glen
    The purpose of the study was to compare how the risk-taking propensity of successful Hispanic female entrepreneurs differed from unsuccessful Hispanic female entrepreneurs. Also investigated were the dynamics of age, marital status, educational attainment, business training, amount and source of start-up financing, previous business experience, length of business ownership, and type of business owned on the risk-taking propensity of the two groups of Hispanic female entrepreneurs. The number of women-owned small businesses has increased dramatically during the last decade, yet their businesses are more likely to fail than the national average within the first year of operation and almost half fail within the first four years of operation. Therefore, there is considerable risk in starting a new business--both financially and personally. Risk-taking propensity has been linked to business success. The ability to identify risk-taking propensity and the characteristics affecting risk-taking propensity will provide the female entrepreneur information important to her decision to become an entrepreneur. Through these means, the female entrepreneur can increase her probability for success. Hispanic female entrepreneurs from a tri-county area in South Central Texas were interviewed and a modified version of Kogan and Wallach's (1964) Choice Dilemma Questionnaire administered to determine risk-taking propensity. Multivariate analysis and correlations were used to analyze the data. The instrument was factor analyzed. There were no significant differences in the risk-taking propensity of the two groups. With the successful group of entrepreneurs, risk-taking propensity was found to be significantly related to age, source of start-up financing, and informal training with insurances. With the unsuccessful group of entrepreneurs, risk-taking propensity was found to be significantly related to informal business training in credit.