2020 Theses and Dissertations

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 141
  • Item
    The lived experience of twenty-one adolescent offenders who resided in the Denton County Courage to Change Program from September 2016 through July 2017
    (11/4/2020) Villarreal, Jessica; Ladd, Linda, Ph. D.; Brock, Linda J.; Muro, Joel
    This study explored the lived experiences of 21 adjudicated adolescent offenders who resided in the Denton County Courage to Change Program. It was a qualitative study which used secondary data. The intent of the study was to add to the body of research on the topic of institutional placements within the juvenile justice system. The data set used in this study was comprised of questionnaires completed by the residents of the program as they neared the completion of their time in the secure residential treatment program. This study used the actual words of the residents to answer the central research question: “What are the experiences of adolescent offenders in the Denton County Courage to Change Program?” This study was grounded in narrative therapy which suggests the experiences of individuals provide valuable information about the particular phenomena that is their experience. Findings of this study indicated that residents perceived their stay in the program as beneficial. The adolescents experienced the program as having had a positive impact on how they viewed themselves, what they were capable of, and what they wanted for their future.
  • Item
    Exploring wellness programming awareness, usage, and perceived leadership support among community college employees
    (11/20/2020) Swan, Toni A.; Ben-Ezra, Victor
    Unhealthy behaviors that many U.S. workers have adopted, such as physical inactivity, poor diet, and stressful lifestyles, have increased health risks and diminished quality of life. With over 140 million employed people spending close to a quarter of their waking lives at work, the workplace is an opportune setting to support employees and provide avenues for healthier lifestyle choices. However, higher-education, specifically at the community college (CC) level, has seen slow growth of health and wellness programming (HWP). The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) examine community college employees’ awareness, usage, and perceptions of leadership support for HWP, and (2) to explore potential differences across leadership levels, employment roles, and campuses within a college system. Participants in the study (n = 621) completed an employee wellness survey. Results indicated that there was a moderate positive correlation between CC employee awareness and usage (r = 0.62, p < .01), and a weak positive correlation between CC employee awareness and perceptions of leadership support (r = 0.18, p < .01). Results from an ANOVA indicated a statistically significant difference in employee perceptions of leadership support for HWP across three levels of leadership F(2, 1860) = 57.84, p < .001, η2 = 0.06 . Employees felt most supported by their direct supervisor (M = 3.94), followed by their campus administration (M = 3.59), followed by their district administration (M = 3.31). Results also indicated that mean perceptions of leadership support differed significantly across campuses (F(5, 615) = 2.86, p = .015, η2 = .023). Lastly, results indicated that awareness (F(2, 616) = 47.6, p < .001, η2 = .134) and usage of HWP (F(2, 578) = 46.03, p < .001, η2 = .14) different significantly between employment roles. Specifically, faculty awareness (M = 1.96, SD =0.58) differed significantly less from staff (M = 2.33, SD = 0.47) and administration awareness (M = 2.45, SD = 0.35), and also that faculty usage of HWP (M = 0.19, SD = 0.21) differed significantly less from staff (M = 0.35, SD = 0.24) and administration usage of HWP (M = 0.40, SD = 0.22).
  • Item
    Anti-inflammatory and joint-protective effects of blueberries in a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) induced rat model of osteoarthritis
    (9/2/2020) South, Sanique M; Juma, Shanil
    The purpose of this dissertation project was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and joint-protective effects of blueberries and its polyphenols using an in vitro and in vivo study design. The in vitro design used rabbit synoviocytes stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Rabbit synoviocytes (HIG-82) were treated with 0, 100, 150, and 200 µg/mL of blueberry polyphenols (BBPs) and stimulated with 10ng/ml TNFα. The in vivo study design employed a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) induced rat model of osteoarthritis. Forty, 45-day-old female CD rats were used where thirty rats were injected with MIA to induce joint destruction associated with osteoarthritis and ten rats served as control without induction of joint destruction. The MIA injected rats were randomized into three groups consisting of 10 animals. All groups were fed a casein-based diet with two of the MIA induced groups receiving an addition of whole blueberry powder at 5% and 10%, respectively for 48 days. The animals were weighed weekly throughout the study period and food intake monitored and recorded. Fasted blood specimens and other tissues were collected after euthanasia for analysis. Mechanical allodynia and joint width were assessed at four timepoint throughout the study to evaluate changes in pain behaviors and edema. Results from the in vitro study showed TNFα increased cell proliferation by ~ 19% compared to the non-stimulated control. This was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with the treatment of blueberry polyphenols. TNFα stimulated, cells treated with BBP resulted in decreases in interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) concentration. The expression of metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) increased 5-fold in the TNFα stimulated synoviocytes but was decreased by 3-fold in the blueberry treated cells. Findings in the MIA rat study demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.05) mechanical allodynia in the MIA group compared to the control group at baseline. Mechanical allodynia was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced after 40 days in the 10% whole blueberry treated group but no effects was seen in the 5% whole blueberry group. There was no effect of edema in the MIA induced groups compared to the control. There was no significant difference in average weight between the four groups at baseline and at the end of the study. The addition of whole blueberry into the diet of the MIA injected animals resulted in decreased serum concentrations of hyaluronic acid, and IL-10 concentrations. Protein expression of COMP and NFĸB were downregulated in cartilage samples. The gene expression of MMP3 and Col1a1 were significantly upregulated in the MIA group compared to the control group. A non-significant decrease was observed with blueberry treatment in MMP2, MMP3, Sufl 1 and NFĸB expression. These results suggest that whole blueberries with its naturally occurring bioactives incorporated into the diet may be a potential complimentary therapeutic agent for reducing inflammation, improving joint health, and alleviating pain associated with osteoarthritis.
  • Item
    The impact of a school garden on fruit and vegetable availability at home for elementary children
    (12/14/2020) Sossamon, Michaela; Miketinas, Derek
    The primary purpose of this study was to explore the impact of a school garden on the home availability of FV and on household food security of elementary children. A secondary aim of the study was to examine the impact of both the school garden and parental FV consumption on children’s FV preferences and consumption. Nine third-grade students completed this study. T-tests and ANOVA assessed changes in outcomes before and after the school-garden program. Associations between the school-garden program, parental FV consumption, and children’s FV preferences and consumption were also examined. Results showed that vegetable consumption of parents was significantly associated with vegetable availability at home (p = 0.003) and vegetable consumption of children (p = 0.01) at the end of the school-garden program. Thus, future studies that further explore the impact of parental vegetable consumption on child vegetable consumption in the context of school gardens would be beneficial.
  • Item
    A content analysis of battering interventions: Development of a unified framework for treating relationally violent men
    (12/7/2020) Slack, Christopher S.; Porras Pyland, Claudia; Stabb, Sally
    Men’s violence against women in the form of intimate partner violence (IPV) has been an ongoing concern worldwide. While awareness of IPV and interventions for survivors of IPV have grown over the last several decades, relatively little attention has been given to improving battering intervention programs (BIPs) that address men’s violence. Existing data from BIPs show that relationally violent men (RVM) can be a very difficult population to treat. Meta-analyses across BIPs with differing theoretical ideologies show that these programs tend to struggle to retain RVM and have small effects on decreasing recidivism. The current dissertation conducted a content analysis of the available BIP literature addressing men’s violence to develop a more wholistic and unified psychotherapy approach for treating RVM. Propositions related to the causes of IPV, hypotheses regarding treatment, and corresponding operational definitions of interventions were identified in the BIP literature focused on treatment interventions. From this content analysis, a unified model of treating RVM was developed. The resulting unified approach for treating RVM may help to inform future treatment directions and improve the effectiveness of BIP programs in reducing men’s violence and preventing drop out. By allowing therapists and BIP facilitators to respond more flexibly and encouraging a more wholistic view of RVM, it is also hoped that this unified approach will aid facilitators looking to expand their repertoire of skills and conceptualization of RVM.
  • Item
    Moral distress in clinical research nurses
    (11/9/2020) Showalter, Brandi L; Malecha, Ann
    Clinical research nursing is the nursing specialty that focuses on the care of research participants and the management of clinical trials. Clinical research nurses (CRN) experience unique challenges in the context of their role related to informed consent, dual obligations, and organizational support. These ethical challenges can lead to conflict, which may lead to moral distress. While moral distress has been examined in many areas of nursing and non-nursing healthcare specialties, it has not been studied in clinical research nursing. A descriptive, quantitative design was used to examine moral distress experienced by CRNs and explore the relationship between moral distress scores and demographic characteristics of CRNs. CRNs (N=322) were recruited using digital flyers, emails through professional organizations, social media, and snowball recruitment. The Measure for Moral Distress – Health Care Professionals (MMD-HP) was administered electronically to measure moral distress in CRNs. Sample characteristics were recorded using a nine-item demographic form. Mean scores were calculated to obtain the overall moral distress score, as well as individual item scores. Pearson’s product-moment correlations, independent t-test, and one-way ANOVA were performed to explore differences among the demographic variables. The analysis demonstrated that CRNs experience moral distress (M = 79.58, SD = 64.27) and that moral distress scores varied by participant demographics. Levels of moral distress were negatively correlated with CRN age (r = -.156, p < .05). CRNs who had previously left a job or considered leaving a job due to moral distress had significantly higher levels of moral distress than those who had not (F2,239 = 14.26, p = .000). Further, the moral distress scores for CRNs currently considering leaving their position due to moral distress were significantly higher than CRNs not considering leaving(t = 6.42, p = .00). Good reliability of the MMD-HP and four subscales with the sample was demonstrated.
  • Item
    Black parents’ perceptions of involvement in their children’s schooling during middle childhood within the U.S. Virgin Islands
    (11/11/2020) Sewer, Carla Mae; Gillum, Nerissa L
    The purpose of this qualitative study was to phenomenologically explore Black parents’ perceptions of involvement in their children’s schooling within middle childhood in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Billingsley’s Black family model was used to guide this study. The two research questions were (1) How do Black parents with children in middle childhood in the U.S. Virgin Islands perceive involvement in their children’s schooling? and, (2) What ways have the experience of Hurricane Irma and/or Hurricane Maria influenced involvement in children’s schooling among parents of children in middle childhood within the U.S. Virgin Islands? Ten Black parents were interviewed using a semi-structured meeting guide. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed to determine themes. For the first research question, the data yielded one major theme: parents take an active role in their children’s schooling. This theme had three sub-themes: helping with homework, attending school events, and volunteering at the school. For the second research question, the data yielded three major themes: parent involvement was focused on their children’s academic learning, their child’s social needs, and their child’s family’s basic needs. The results of the study were compared to existing literature and conclusions were drawn. Study strengths and limitations and recommendations for future research and for policy and practice are also presented.
  • Item
    An exploratory factor analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson IV tests of cognitive abilities and tests of oral language for the 9- to 13- year old age range
    (11/24/2020) Rowden, Ashley Sabrina; Maricle, Denise E.
    Scientific understanding of the nature of intelligence has steadily evolved over the years; however, the past century has seen an explosion of research aimed at understanding the construction of intelligence, the relationships between neuroscience and cognitive skills, and the best ways to measure intellectual abilities. While there is no clear consensus regarding the most accurate or all-encompassing theory of intelligence, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory has become one of the premiere guides to understanding the many facets of intelligence. The Woodcock-Johnson (WJ) series of tests have steadily incorporated CHC theory, aiming to provide practitioners with tangible measures of various cognitive skills. Two batteries from the most recent iteration of the WJ, the Woodcock-Johnson IV (WJ IV), are the WJ IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ IV COG) and the WJ IV Tests of Oral Language (WJ IV OL); WJ IV publishers purport that these two batteries provide a measure of general intelligence (g) as well as seven broad intelligence factors. However, research methods reportedly used to ensure adherence to CHC theory were both unorthodox and unclear. The purpose of this study is to use a commonly employed method of observing test structure – exploratory factor analysis – to understand the factor structure of the WJ IV COG and WJ IV OL for the 9- to 13- year old age group. A correlation matrix provided in the WJ IV Technical Manual was used for data analyses. Four subtests were removed from analyses due to weak or cross-loadings, thus the final solution was comprised of 23 subtests. Results indicated that the WJ IV COG and WJ IV OL are primarily measures of a single strong factor which coincides with comprehension-knowledge (Gc). Four additional weaker but salient factors were also present and hypothesized to represent short-term working memory (Gwm), perceptual reasoning, processing speed (Gs), and auditory processing (Ga). Perceptual reasoning was the only factor which did not clearly align with the factor structure reported in the Technical Manual, as it appeared to represent a blend of fluid reasoning (Gf), long-term storage and retrieval (Glr), and visual processing (Gv). These results closely mirrored the findings of other researchers examining the structural validity of the WJ IV.  
  • Item
    Investigating the flavor of fresh calamondin peel and juice using instrumental and descriptive sensory analysis
    (8/31/2020) Romero, Judee; Du, Xiaofen
    Calamondin (Citrus microcarpa) is a popular citrus fruit in Asia that resembles a small tangerine with a delicate pulp and fresh, lime-like flavors in its peel and juice. Studies on the flavor of calamondin juice and peel are limited and its unique flavor has not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate the flavor composition and sensory properties of fresh immature calamondin juice and peel. A method using solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS) analysis was developed for volatile isolation and identification in calamondin juice and peel. The developed method used Lichrolut-EN sorbent and a 95:5 dichloromethane:methanol eluent that was effective for extraction of a wider range of volatiles compared to the most popular method, solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-MS. SPE-GC-MS analysis identified 75 and 101 compounds from the juice and peel, respectively. The total volatile intensity of the peel was more than three times that of the juice. The dominant peel volatiles included limonene (10.53-27.85%), (Z)-3-hexenol (4.85-12.51%), linalool (9.40-10.29%), 1-octanol (2.55-2.84%), α-terpineol (4.00-7.80%), isopiperitenone (1.91%), geraniol (0.79-1.06%), 8-hydroxylinalool (1.20-2.12%), (E)-ρ- mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (0.39-1.61%), and hexadecanoic acid (0.81-1.31%). Dominant juice volatiles included limonene (14.51-14.59%), hexadecanoic acid (3.19-10.88%), 4-hydroxy-benzeneethanol (0.09-7.98%), cryptomeridiol (4.95-5.76%), stearic acid (3.38-3.82%), α-terpineol (2.29-3.76%), (Z)-8-hydroxylinalool (0.45-3.58%), α-cadinol (1.23-3.16%), limonen-1,2-diol (0.41-2.85%), linoleic acid (1.36-2.73%), and (Z)-3-hexenol (0.17-1.36%). The volatile profiles showed seasonal difference, with fruit harvested in August containing higher concentrations of most volatiles compared to fruit harvested in April. Sensory evaluation was conducted by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) where panelists (n=12) used 19 attributes and their intensities (0-10 line scale) to characterize the flavor of calamondin juice and zest. QDA indicated that the aroma of the zest was most intensely characterized by peely, fresh, and fatty notes, with intensities of 6.8, 5.7, and 5.3, respectively. The aroma of the juice was most intensely characterized by juicy, acidic, mandarin, and fresh with intensities of 5.8, 5.7, 5.5, and 5.2, respectively. The flavor (aroma and taste) of the juice was most intensely characterized using the attributes of sourness (8.9), salivating (7.8), astringent (7.5), bitter, juicy (5.6), and fresh (5.2). Results of the chemical and sensory analysis indicated that dominant volatiles identified in the juice and peel corresponded to sensory attributes. This study could be applied towards developing a flavor profile for calamondin.
  • Item
    Attitudes among psychologists working with Borderline Personality Disorder
    (8/11/2020) Nelson, Lindsey J.; Chun, Kathryn M
    The purpose of the study is to provide a baseline for the attitudes of psychologists responding to patients identified as meeting criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). A review of the literature has indicated that psychiatric nurses are the most common group studied. To provide a baseline of psychologists’ attitudes, an online self-report survey was devised through extensive literature review of items and themes found in similar surveys, with heaviest weight given to studies completed with psychologists. The multiple linear regression model demonstrates that although training and years of experience do not have a significant effect on psychologists’ attitudes, the post-hoc correlation analysis shows that psychologists have the ability to hold and integrate multiple attitudes related to the BPD patient which are dichotomous. Included in the correlation is the finding that increased attendance at BPD-specific trainings reduces negative attitudes in working with BPD patients.
  • Item
    Preliminary measurement properties of the early childhood occupational profile (ecope)
    (11/19/2020) Moore, Cary Clayton; Bowyer, Patricia
    PURPOSE: This dissertation established the preliminary psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Occupational Profile (ECOPE) and investigated the perspectives of occupational therapists on the clinical utility of the tool. METHODS: An embedded mixed methods research design was utilized to support the use of different research questions and unique sets of data. National and international occupational therapists administered the ECOPE on video case studies and on children from their caseload. These data were analyzed using the Rasch goodness of fit statistics to evaluate the validity and reliability of the ECOPE. Participating occupational therapists also completed an anonymous survey to gather information on the clinical utility of the tool. RESULTS: Rasch analysis goodness of fit statistics indicated the ECOPE strongly measures the construct of occupational participation and reliably detects differences in young children’s occupational participation skills. The MnSq values for the ECOPE indicated strong construct validity and person and item fit reliability with scores of 0.93 for person label variables and 0.91 for item responses. The ECOPE item separation statistic of 3.11 and reliability of 0.91 indicated the item structure will accurately measure occupational participation in a new sample. The ECOPE person separation statistic of 3.68 and reliability of 0.93 indicated a high level of stability across new samples. Qualitative data from occupational therapists indicated the ECOPE has strong clinical utility and a positive impact on treatment planning. Participants either strongly agree or agree that the ECOPE is a useful tool with appropriate time requirements for administration and interpretation. Similarly, occupational therapists indicated the tool is useful for understanding the young child’s occupational participation skills and is easy to use in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: This dissertation study established the preliminary reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the Early Childhood Occupational Profile (ECOPE). The ECOPE is an occupation-based assessment which reflects the distinct value of occupational therapy while evaluating the young child’s occupational participation skills within the natural contexts of home or community. The ECOPE addressed the need for development and use of occupation-based assessments in pediatric practice as reported in the literature.
  • Item
    The airline pilot’s wife: A qualitative study exploring the experiences of wives of male regional airline pilots
    (11/30/2020) McPherson, Kalvanetta Michelle; Hwang, Shann Hwa
    Regional airline pilots often work days away from home. For regional airline pilots who are married with children, working away from home can place the responsibilities of the home and family in the care of the pilot’s spouse. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of the wives of regional airline pilots. A phenomenological approach was used in order to allow each participant to share her story. This study was framed using the family systems theory. Ten wives of regional airline pilots with at least one dependent child living in the home were recruited through a social networking platform. Each participant completed an online questionnaire which included demographic information as well two reflective questions. Participants also participated in a semi-structured interview with the researcher. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed and coded in order to develop three major themes: (a) Flexibility in Daily Living, (b) Unpredictable Family Relationships, and (c) Benefits. The study revealed that each individual in the family impacts the family system as well as each subsystem. When the pilot is working away from home, the pilot’s wife can feel overwhelmed, lonely, or even resentful, while at the same time she is experiencing life without him and exercising her independence. In order to maintain the boundaries within each subsystem, communication is key. When the pilot returns home, the family begins the process of self-stabilization which includes being flexible with their routine and special events in order to include the pilot, as well as appreciating the time together as a family. The implications and limitations of this study were included as well as recommendations for future research.
  • Item
    Cultural competence and knowledge of South Asian culture of registered nurses working in an urban hospital setting
    (12/1/2020) Mathews, Nisha Jobin; Malecha, Ann
    Little research has been done to examine the cultural competence (CC) and knowledge of the South Asian culture of registered nurses (RNs) working in an urban hospital setting. The purpose of this correlational descriptive study was to examine the CC and knowledge of the South Asian culture of RNs working in an urban hospital setting. The hospital in the study consisted of a culturally diverse patient population showing the importance for nurses to provide holistic nursing based on cultural differences, and cultural skills. Convenience sampling was used to recruit the participants for the study. This study could be used as the foundation for future studies related to cultural competence and South Asian knowledge of RNs in an urban hospital setting. Data analysis involved the use of descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, an independent t-test, and one-way ANOVA. The alpha was set at 0.05. The one way ANOVA showed that the South Asian Knowledge Score and ethnic comparison yielded a statistically significant difference amongst the groups. There was a weak positive relationship between South Asian knowledge score and Cultural Awareness (r= .209 p value= .021). The mean total CC scores were 71.9705 ranging from 57-88. The standard deviation was 6.47168. Significant findings were that the RNs were culturally aware, required more cultural knowledge, and were highly motivated in cultural desire. There is an opportunity for educators to improve RN's level of cultural knowledge. As the United States’ population becomes more culturally diverse, it is most important for RNs to gain cultural knowledge to meet the needs of patients from diverse cultures
  • Item
    Mexican Americans' attitudes toward Mexican immigrants
    (9/8/2020) Macias, Jaqueline; Terrizzi, John A., Jr.
    This study aimed to determine the relationship between acculturation, ethnic and national identity, political ideology and partisanship, prejudice, and disgust within Mexican-Americans. Previous studies indicated that national identification, political conservatism, and disgust were related to increased prejudice toward out-groups. It was hypothesized that acculturation, national and ethnic identity, and political ideology would predict prejudice and disgust toward Mexican immigrants. In addition, political ideology was expected to mediate the disgust-prejudice relationship. Results indicated Mexican-Americans that had higher national identification, political conservatism, and acculturation predicted prejudice toward Mexican immigrants. Contrary to the hypothesis, individuals that identified as second generation or more had less prejudice than first generation participants. Further, when political conservatism was controlled for, the direct effect of disgust and prejudice was decreased, indicating partial mediation. Future research should consider recruiting more participants that identify as second generation or more to properly analyze group differences, as well as replicate these findings in other minority ethnic groups.
  • Item
    A mixed method analysis of the role of balance outcome measures in therapist decision-making and patient outcomes
    (10/30/2020) Lyon, Marissa F; GLEESON, PEGGY B
    The purpose of these three studies was to assess the impact of using outcome measures on physical therapists' decision-making and patient functional outcomes. Three hundred thirty-seven physical therapists completed an online survey focused on their use of outcome measures and their relationship with decision-making for patients with acquired brain injury. Physical therapists reported that the use of outcome measures frequently impacted decision-making in estimating prognosis, identifying a patient's risk for adverse events, setting goals, communicating, educating, making discharge decisions, and selecting treatment interventions. Twenty-three physical therapists participated in semi-structured interviews focused on outcome measures' impact on decision-making and patient outcomes. Therapists indicated that outcome measures played a large role in clinical decisions, and a majority reported they believed there was a relationship between outcome measures and patient outcomes. Finally, eight physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) participated in a knowledge translation intervention focused on outcome measures. Patients treated by these therapists demonstrated significantly better ambulation ability and participated in significantly fewer minutes of physical therapy compared to patients treated by six PTs and PTAs who did not participate in an educational intervention.
  • Item
    Assessing senior baccalaureate nursing students’ attitudes toward sexual health education as a nursing responsibility following a family life and sexual health education intervention
    (11/4/2020) Kuntz, Dora May; Toms, Robin
    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately one in four adolescents has a sexually transmitted infection. Early sexual health education provided by specially trained educators has been shown to decrease early sexual debut and lower risk behaviors in adolescents. Approximately 80% of registered nurses feel sexual health education to adolescents is within their role; however, most report feeling uncomfortable or unprepared to provide the education. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of a one-hour family life and sexual health education intervention called Family Life and Sexual Health, FLASH, provided to senior-level, fourth-semester undergraduate nursing students, enrolled within two baccalaureate schools of nursing in the southeast United States, on improving scores on the Students’ Attitudes Towards Addressing Sexual Health Questionnaire, SA-SH. James’ Pragmatisms, Theory of Truth, was used to guide this mixed-methods, two-group, pretest-posttest design. Fifty-three participants were randomized into the FLASH education group and 48 participants were randomized into an attention control group who received a course in stress management for a total of 101 study participants. To prevent potential contamination, both the intervention and attention control groups received their presentations simultaneously in one, one-hour sessions during the same day, at the same time. The SA-SH was administered as a pre-test and post-test for both groups. The FLASH participants had a statistically significant improvement in total sum scores on the SA-SH Questionnaire (F (1, 41) =19, p-value <0.01). The FLASH group also demonstrated significant increases in comfort levels towards providing sexual health education in their future occupations on the questionnaire (p < 0.001). No significant differences in the groups were found in role responsibility, future working environment, or fear of negative impacts on future patient relationships. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data showed less perceived barriers in study participants who were randomized into the FLASH education intervention compared to those in the attention control stress management course. A one-hour FLASH course presented to senior-level, fourth-semester undergraduate nursing students can improve attitudes, especially comfort levels, toward providing sexual health education to fifth-grade students. Implications for nursing include incorporating sexual health education specific to the adolescent population into Baccalaureate nursing programs. These findings suggest a one-hour FLASH education intervention improves overall attitudes, comfort, and decreases perceived barriers to providing sexual health education to fifth-grade students.
  • Item
    Analysis of resistant starch content among different potato varieties and the impact of one variety on satiety
    (9/4/2020) Kung, Stephanie; Patterson, Mindy A.
    Resistant starch (RS) content can be impacted by cooking method and potato variety and have effects on satiety when consumed. This study analyzed RS content among three potato varieties (Red Norland, Russet, and Yukon Gold) where each were cooked using five different methods and serving temperatures (boiled used hot, baked used hot, baked then chilled one day, baked then chilled three days, and baked then chilled five days). RS content was the highest in Russet potatoes baked then chilled for five days (6.21g/100g) and lowest in Yukon Gold potatoes boiled used hot (1.84 g/100g). Cooking method showed an effect on RS content (p<0.001) but RS did not differ among potato variety (p=0.247). Then, Russet potatoes were utilized in a randomized crossover trial that examined their impact on subjective satiety measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and satiety biomarkers glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). In the trial, the females consumed boiled potatoes served hot and baked then chilled potatoes consumed on separate occasions with VAS scores and GLP-1 and PYY. No differences in the area under the curve (AUC) for AUC(0-120 min) for GLP-1 and PYY and overall subjective satiety were found between the boiled and chilled potatoes.
  • Item
    The Behavioral immune system and attitudes toward COVID-19
    (12/15/2020) Kempthorne, Johnmark; Terrizzi, John A., Jr.
    The Behavioral Immune System acts as the first line of defense against harmful pathogens. One of the primary functions of this system is the emotion of disgust. It compels individuals to adopt socially conservative attitudes to avoid people and stimuli that could infect the individual with an unwanted disease. The COVID-19 pandemic has presented a unique opportunity to further examine these relationships. The purpose of the current research is to explore how social conservatism interacts with the behavioral immune system in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data was collected by having participants complete an online survey. Social conservatism bolsters attitudes and behaviors in relation to COVID-19. Those who are more conservative are less anxious about the pandemic, less knowledgeable about COVID-19, and have more favorable views towards the U.S. government’s response to the pandemic.
  • Item
    Influence of one or more domestic relocations on adolescent social skills perceived by former military parents
    (12/15/2020) Jackson-Lynch, Lena Mae; Hwang, Shann Hwa; Armstrong, Joyce; Moore, Lin
    The purpose of this research was to describe the experiences of former military parents regarding their adolescent’s social skills associated with one or more military domestic relocation. Specifically, the study highlighted the effect of domestic relocations on military adolescents’ social skills through the parents’ perspective. In addition, this study was designed using Bowen’s Family Theory and Erickson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Theory. Interviews were used to discover the research questions that guided this study: “What past experiences occurred involving social skills in adolescents before and after a military domestic relocation” and “How would additional social skills education benefit adolescents in military families?” Seven veterans and spouses, 41 years of age and older, shared their perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding military adolescents’ social skills. Emerging themes were anxiety, community, adaptability, availability, and make a difference. Previous research supports findings that emphasize military adolescents’ social skills that indicate the importance of adapting behaviors. Suggestions are provided for overcoming barriers and future research.
  • Item
    Teachers’ experiences with occupational therapy multi-tiered systems support: A qualitative study
    (11/6/2020) Hintz, Lou Ann; Fletcher, Tina
    School-based occupational therapists are tasked with participating in multi-tiered systems support (MTSS) services to all students, including general education students who may be at risk for school failure. Yet, there is little information in the literature on how school-based therapists achieve this and the perceptions of teachers who engage with occupational therapists providing service within the MTSS framework. The purpose of this study is to understand the experiences of elementary public-school teachers who are working with occupational therapists that provide support within an MTSS framework. A qualitative study with a transcendental phenomenological approach was employed to answer the research question. The occupational adaptation theoretical framework guided sub-questions for this study. The researcher aligned these sub-questions to relative mastery, which occurs when a sense of efficiency, effectiveness, and satisfaction occur (Schkade & Schultz, 1992). Teacher participants were recruited through purposeful sampling and snowball sampling techniques. Thirteen teachers from four different states of the United States participated in this study. Their years of teaching experience ranged from 3 to 21 years. Data sources included verbatim transcribed interviews, survey information, and artifacts. Moustakas (1994) structured approach for data analysis was utilized and resulted in a composite textural, structural description of the teachers’ experiences. Results showed that teachers expressed positive feelings when describing their experiences with occupational therapists who provide service through an MTSS framework. In this study, teachers were participating with occupational therapists through the MTSS framework frequently, ongoing, informally, through whole-class instruction and valued the knowledge gained from occupational therapists. Some barriers identified by the teachers were a lack of MTSS documentation, a lack of understanding of school-based occupational therapists' scope and role, and their need for more occupational therapy services within the MTSS framework. In conclusion, teachers described their experiences with occupational therapy MTSS as satisfactory, efficient, and effective.