Music

Permanent URI for this collectionhttps://hdl.handle.net/11274/15809

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    Reflections of receiving music therapy in Thailand: A phenomenological case study of an adult with chronic mental illness
    (Dec-23) Viriyasakultorn, Nutcha; West, Rebecca; Molloy-Daugherty, Della; Milan, Daniel
    This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of a Thai adult living with chronic mental illness who receives music therapy from a music therapist in Thailand. Purposive sampling and an online semi-structured interview were conducted for this study. The participant (Nam) is a Thai female adult who was diagnosed with depression. Music therapy was very helpful for Nam in many areas, such as being an emotional outlet and a channel for self-reflection. Music was like a friend to Nam that embraced her in every situation and made her relationship with the therapist grow stronger. On the other hand, the music therapist was an influential person who supported her from the very beginning until Nam found her self-worth and could be independent again.
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    Imposter phenomenon among BIPOC MT-BCs: Understanding how BIPOC music therapists experience imposter phenomenon
    (Dec-23) Tirado, Katelyn M 1996-; West, Rebecca; DiMaio, Lauren; Jensen, Joni
    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand how Black, Indigenous, People of Color (BIPOC) music therapists experience imposter phenomenon (IP) in the United States. The intent was to provide insight into under-represented groups within the field of music therapy and to increase conversations around imposter phenomenon to improve the field of music therapy for BIPOC music therapists. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with four individuals who self-identified as having experienced feelings of IP due to being a BIPOC music therapist. Based on the results, three global themes were identified. The global themes included 1) Intersecting Identities Impact the Experience of IP, 2) A lack of discussion exists regarding music therapists of color who experience IP vs. music therapists who experience IP, and 3) Greater levels of IP are experienced by BIPOC music therapists when their ideas, thoughts, and culture are not valued and validated within the field.
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    Transparency and responsiveness of music therapy master’s equivalency programs: A descriptive survey study of recent graduates
    (Dec-23) Whitworth, Landon; DiMaio, Lauren; West, Rebecca; Biggers, Carter
    This descriptive survey reports trends in student perceptions of transparency and responsiveness in their music therapy master's equivalency programs. Thirteen current or recent music therapy master’s equivalency students gave perceptions of their programs’ transparency regarding length of program, transfer credits, and dual role status. Respondents also gave perceptions of responsiveness to their unique and non-traditional needs in this dual role. The results indicate that while students generally feel well-informed about graduation requirements and transfer credits in their programs, they don't have the same level of clarity when it comes to understanding how long the program will take. Respondents generally perceived their programs were responsive to their needs, and their courses were appropriately challenging, but information about prior experiences in music and related careers informed some of the negative experiences shared. This study highlights the need for transparency in music therapy master’s equivalency programs, and gives some recommendations for practices to maintain, improve consistency and change in music therapy master’s equivalency education.
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    Asian and Asian American music therapists’ experiences with racism, discrimination, xenophobia, and microaggressions: A convergent parallel mixed methods study
    (Dec-23) Chiu, Megan; West, Rebecca; DiMaio, Lauren; Woolery, Danielle
    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to understand experiences of racism, discrimination, xenophobia, and microaggressions Asian and Asian American music therapists may experience in the field. A total of 25 participants completed the survey and five participants completed the interview. Respondents from the survey noted experiencing aspects of racism throughout their academic training and various workplaces. Six themes emerged through data analysis using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). A similarity from both data sets is aspects of racism can happen anywhere and at any point in a music therapists’ training and career. A difference between the data sets was the general feelings of acceptance or belonging as an Asian or Asian American and as a music therapist. A need exists for more research surrounding Asian and Asian American music therapists’ experiences and how experiencing racism affects their identity, sense of belonging, and value to the field, especially post COVID-19.
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    Benefits and challenges of implementing a trauma-informed approach within pediatric music therapy: An interpretive phenomenological study
    (Dec-23) Davis, Caroline; West, Rebecca; DiMaio, Lauren; Thomas, Paul
    The purpose of this study was to understand how music therapists navigate the benefits and challenges of implementing a trauma-informed approach within pediatric inpatient hospitals. Four music therapists participated in this study through semi-structured interviews. Utilizing an adaptation of Smith et al.’s (2022) protocol for interpretive phenomenological analysis, several themes emerged: defining elements of trauma-informed care, the benefits and challenges of implementing a trauma-informed approach within a pediatric inpatient medical setting, strategies for overcoming these challenges, and the need for more music therapy specific training and education on trauma-informed care. Several subthemes were identified for each theme. Subtheme topics included: safety, recognizing the impact of trauma, patient autonomy, the inclusion of family, positive traits and actions to address challenges, and the importance of trauma-informed care. These findings underscore the necessity for further research on the subject of trauma-informed music therapy.
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    Music and traumatic brain injury: An arts-based first-person retrospective case study
    (Dec-23) Williamson, Laura; Dr. Lauren DiMaio; Dr. Della Molloy-Daugherty; Dr. Wendi Johnson
    The purpose of this arts-based first-person retrospective case study was to explore the impact of music during the researcher’s recovery from a traumatic brain injury (TBI). The research process included journaling before, during, and after viewing the researcher’s medical records from her TBI and creating a performance to artistically communicate what she found about the impact of music in her life during this time and the benefit of music therapy to patients with this condition. The researcher discovered that music did indeed greatly benefit her recovery from a severe TBI, and existing literature indicated clear benefits of music for TBI patients in the form of music therapy. The researcher artistically communicated these findings in a performance which was recorded and is linked in Chapter IV.
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    Exploring the role of music ensemble directors in strengthening racial identity among Asian American high school students
    (Aug-23) Cruz, Cryselle 1999-; Baker, Vicki D.; West, Rebecca; Thomas, Paul
    The twofold purpose of this study was: 1. to bring awareness, and therefore an increased understanding of the complex experience of Asian Americans in music and 2. to explore the role of high school music educators in developing a positive racial identity for their Asian music ensemble members. Participants (N=62) were adult Asian Americans who had participated in a high school music ensemble. Results of the survey indicated that almost one-half of participants played in orchestra (n=30), followed closely by choir (n=28). Most participants indicated that music was an important part of their childhood and that they had relatives and close family friends who were musicians. The majority of participants also indicated that performing Asian music or music by Asian composers may have helped them feel more respected and appreciated in their high school music classrooms, and therefore helped them develop positive racial identities as Asian Americans.
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    The relationship of band directors’ personal characteristics, professional skills, and external factors to student achievement: A comparison of in-service and pre-service band directors’ perspectives
    (Aug-23) Lawson, Eric; Baker, Vicki D.; Biggers, Carter; Woolery, Danielle
    The twofold purpose of this study was: 1.) to determine which personal characteristics, professional skills, and external factors contribute to the success of a band program and 2.) to compare the perspectives of in-service (n=62) and pre-service (n=35) band directors. Results from this study indicated that personal characteristics linked to personability, moral fortitude, and ethical behavior were most significant to both groups of survey participants. Additionally, this study determined that in-service band directors value personal characteristics more than pre-service band directors and the pre-service directors valued professional skills and external factors more than the in-service directors. However, both participant groups agreed that high school band director personal characteristics were most important to the success of a band program followed by professional skills and external factors.
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    A phenomenological exploration of the financial implications of being a music therapist
    (Aug-23) Turner, Sarah Abigail 1997-; DiMaio, Lauren; Woolery, Danielle; West, Rebecca
    Music therapists experience several financial responsibilities as they undergo completing their degree and internship, becoming certified, and working as professionals. Scant literature exists that encompasses the broad range of experiences throughout this timeline. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore how financial responsibilities impacted music therapists’ lived experiences as students and professionals. The researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with five board-certified music therapists and used an interpretive phenomenological analysis to derive four major themes: complexities within the music therapy career, privilege, advocacy, and burnout. Practical implications are made for music therapists to better understand the potential barriers and circumstances that exist in the field and to begin to establish necessary support and change.
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    Protective and risk factors of burnout for newer music therapists: A convergent parallel mixed methods study
    (Aug-23) Woodward, Amber Patrice 1987-; West, Rebecca; DiMaio, Lauren; Thomas, Paul
    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to identify what the protective measures and risk factors of burnout are for music therapists within their first recertification cycle, and how protective and risk factors of burnout and the use of self-care, resiliency, and identity intersect. An online survey was completed by 127 music therapists in the United States who had been certified for less than 5 years. Three survey respondents were selected for participation in individual follow-up interviews to further describe their experiences. The researcher integrated the findings of the online survey and follow-up interviews to explain the experiences of burnout for music therapists in their first recertification cycle, the protective and risk factors of burnout, and how self-care, resiliency, and identity intersect. Results of this study indicated that music therapists in their first recertification cycle consider themselves resilient individuals who engage in self-care practices and whose personality traits impact their experiences with burnout and resiliency. Several protective and risk factors of burnout were also identified. Based on the findings of this study more research is recommended surrounding the experiences of burnout within the field of music therapy to contribute to the evolving and expanding resources available to music therapists who have newly entered the field.
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    An investigation of the strategies used to mitigate mental illness symptoms in choral music ensemble classrooms: A case study
    (May-23) Walls, Jess 1986-; Baker, Vicki D.; Thomas, Paul; Molloy-Daugherty, Della
    The mental illness epidemic affects people of all ages in every facet of daily life, including individuals involved in music ensembles. The purpose of this study was to interview current choral music educators (N=4) who had suffered from mental illness as adolescents and to determine their perceived level of mental health support from their choral ensemble directors while in middle school or high school. Further, the participants reported their current educational practices related to their students who struggle with their mental health. Finally, the support received by the participants in their choral ensemble classes was compared to the support they currently provide their students. Participants’ recommendations for directors included having an overall positive, safe, inclusive, welcoming, and encouraging classroom environment and building relationships, while avoiding pressuring students to perform perfectly, focusing solely on accolades or contests, disregarding changes in students’ behavior or demeanor, and accusing students of being lazy or unmotivated.
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    A comparison of musical aptitude with reading ability and language development among 1st and 2nd grade students
    (May-23) Fougerousse Aumen, Mary 1992-; Baker, Vicki D.; Lozada, Victor; Thomas, Paul
    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of music aptitude with literacy skills for ELL and native English speaker students in the 1st and 2nd grade. This quantitative study follows a correlational design with a comparative component. This study was limited by a small sample (N=28) of 1st and 2nd grade students from one elementary school. Testing instruments for this study included Rhythm and Tonal music aptitude tests from the Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation (IMMA) and literacy measures from the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS), including phonemic segmentation fluency (PSF), nonsense word fluency (NWF), word reading fluency (WRF), and oral reading fluency (ORF). Results indicated that positive relationships existed between Tonal Audiation, Rhythmic Audiation, and the IMMA composite. The IMMA Composite, the Rhythmic Audiation Test, and the PSF from the DIBELS were statistically significant, favoring native English speakers over ELLs.
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    A descriptive survey of the trends of music therapy interns vocal health
    (May-23) Jeong, Yeojin 1994-; DiMaio, Lauren; West, Rebecca; Tarr, Jeffery
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the vocal health tendencies of music therapy interns. The descriptive survey was administered to 25 music therapy interns. The results indicated that a majority of the participants experienced vocal fatigue and had a limited understanding of their own voices and the importance of warm-up and cool-down exercises. This lack of knowledge may be attributed to inadequate practical education and a lack of clear guidelines from the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) regarding vocal health. As a result, interns were prone to neglect the importance of proper vocal care. This study highlights the need for more practical voice education and clearer guidelines from AMTA regarding vocal health for music therapy interns.
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    Music therapy for pregnancy: A phenomenological inquiry of the experiences of pregnant women engaging in music therapy
    (May-23) Swerdloff, Kamila Z; DiMaio, Lauren; Molloy-Daugherty, Della; Biggers, Carter
    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological inquiry was to explore the lived experiences of expectant mothers engaging in music therapy for perinatal mental health and aimed to give voice to the experiences of pregnant women in a therapeutic setting participating in creative exploration through music. Data was collected and analyzed from five adult female participants who had engaged in music therapy during pregnancy. The participants were invited to share their experiences through semi-structured interviews. Four themes emerged through data analysis informed by the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) method (Biggerstaff & Thompson, 2008). These themes included bonding with the unborn child, managing pregnancy related stress, pain management during labor and delivery, and creating partner intimacy. This topic would benefit from further research studying the experiences of pregnant women participating in music therapy for perinatal mental health.
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    A systematic review of school-based music therapy practices through the lens of integral thinking in music therapy
    (May-23) Kittleson, Rebecca 11/02/1995-; Lauren DiMaio; Molloy-Daugherty, Della; Keeley, Randa
    The purpose of this systematic review was to explore school-based music therapy practices through the lens of Integral Thinking in Music Therapy (ITMT). This study aimed to address two research questions. 1) What does the literature reveal about the practices of school-based music therapy according to ITMT? 2) What ITMT recommendations can be made from critically reviewing this literature? 15 articles were selected based upon the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The results indicated a lack of literature regarding the referral, assessment, and evaluation process of school-based music therapy practices. The results also revealed that most school-based music therapy practices are outcome thinking based, with 13 out of 15 articles. Context thinking was prevalent in school-based music therapy practices, with 10 out of 15 articles. Experience thinking had the least articles, with 6 out of 15. Future recommendations are discussed.
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    A systematic review of melodic intonation therapy that involved music therapists
    (May-23) Mata, Hannah Lee 1990-; Dr. Della Molloy Daugherty; Dr. Rebecca West; Dr. Paul David Thomas
    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate Melodic Intonation Therapy research (MIT) that included music therapists. The researcher sought to identify the number of studies that included at least one music therapist, their role in research, and their contributions. This study was designed according to Cooper’s (1998) stepwise process for synthesizing research. A literature search was conducted of MIT studies that included music therapists published between January 1973 to July 2022. The data was collected in accordance with a two-phase evaluation of inclusion and exclusion criteria and a PRISMA flow diagram. The data was rated on risks of bias, level of evidence, and strength of evidence. Based on the results, only 14 studies (N = 14) involved at least one music therapist. Music therapists most frequently had the role of author and practitioner (n = 4) and practitioner only (n = 4). Music therapists were less involved as co-practitioners with paraprofessionals (n = 3). The ratings for level of evidence were lower, with the majority of studies rated at 2B (n= 5), because of the low number of participants in all studies. Nevertheless, music therapists contributed to research by testing modified versions of MIT for a wide range of diagnoses. Notable diagnoses were developmental apraxia of speech (DAS) and children with Down syndrome since a version of MIT did not exist for children. Furthermore, music therapists used their professional competencies to make music-based modifications. The results of each study indicated that modified versions of MIT were effective in improving speech output and levels of participation, among other benefits. While a limited amount of research included music therapists, their involvement contributed to the growth of MIT practice
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    Music lessons provided to clients, by music therapists: A descriptive study of current practices in the United States
    (May-23) Lopez, Katie Lynn 1996-; Molloy-Daugherty, Della; West, Rebecca; Woolery, Danielle
    The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine current practices of board-certified music therapists who provide music instruction or music lessons to clients as part of their professional practice. It has been known anecdotally that music therapists provide music instruction, but the practice of ongoing systematic use of music instruction as an intervention has not been exclusively studied or unanimously defined in the literature. This survey sought to define the current scope of practice. Autistic Spectrum Disorder was reported by participants the most frequently, as the highest frequency of clienteles receiving music instruction. The most commonly reported goal domains and highest percentage of perceived benefits were musical, cognitive, and fine motor skills. Further research with a larger sample size could potentially identify trends to guide data-driven research. In the discussion, the author proposes a working definition of Clinical Music Instruction to distinguish this goal-based music instruction.
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    A phenomenological investigation of the experience of graduate-level music therapists with dual certification in counseling
    (Dec-22) Reyes, Joseph Anthony 1988-; DiMaio, Lauren; DiMaio, Lauren; Muro, Joel; West, Rebecca
    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the academic and professional experiences of graduate-level music therapists with dual licensure in counseling. The intent was to identify similarities and differences within and across therapists’ experiences, to denote emerging themes, and to provide insight into the phenomena of dual certification in music therapy and counseling. This study had five participants. Based on the results, attaining dual certification may improve various areas of the clinician’s lived experiences, including their employability, compensation, sense of competency, self-worth, and future outlook. The interlocking model of three domains—academic experiences, professional experiences, and personal development—was developed to illustrate how these areas affect the quality of client care. Implications for future research include scope of practice between dual-certified and single-credentialed therapists, university program design, and addressing potential consequences of music therapy advocacy efforts.
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    Music therapists and accessibility of services: A descriptive study of music therapists in the Dallas-Forth Worth Metroplex (DFW) through a social justice framework
    (Dec-22) Sirney, Daniel Robert 1992-; West, Rebecca; DiMaio, Lauren; Thomas, Paul
    The purpose of this study was to answer the question of where music therapy services are located, how music therapy services are delivered/reimbursed, and how music therapists are incorporating equity and social justice in relation to transportation and accessibility of services in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Out of 256 music therapists asked to participate in this study, 20 music therapists answered a descriptive survey. Descriptive statistics were used to compile results. Based on the results, music therapy services are primarily provided in several locations, with services reimbursed differently depending on facility type and individual therapist. Therapist transportation was reported as a more pressing factor than client transportation needs. The researcher collected an initial baseline of music therapy work in the greater DFW metroplex that will hopefully serve as the basis for future research in the state and nationwide.