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Item2021-2022: Year of the Pandemic(Consortium of State Organizations for Texas Teacher Education (CSOTTE), 2022) Fredrickson, RebeccaAt the close of the 2021 CSOTTE conference, I had the opportunity to reflect upon what the experience meant to me. The fact that we were once again permitted to gather together--in the same room with Covid 19 social distancing preference color coordinated lanyards--was something marvelous I never in my wildest academic dreams ever thought would be something so treasured. It never dawned on me that people (especially educators) would not always be able to easily gather together to grow and learn. This is something that I will not take for granted again. ItemThe 36% problem(Springer Link, 2015-11) Scott, GrayStudent learning assessments—from the institutional level to Academically Adrift—routinely overlook the ways that plagiarism and cheating may contribute to poor outcome performance. The blind spot is a curious one. Faculty have long warned students that they must complete work honestly if they are to learn. Cognitive research offers good reasons for such warnings: Students are unlikely to improve at skills or retain content unless they think their way through the work. Yet assessors speculating about below-expectation student performance rarely consider the role of academic integrity, and few surveys on teaching effectiveness inquire into integrity policies. Drawing on cognitive and behavioral research, this paper makes a case for giving academic integrity variables more attention in assessments and studies. ItemA biomechanical comparison of successful and unsuccessful triple-turn pirouette en dehors trials in ballet(1/9/2019) Kim, Jemin; Kwon, Young-HooPirouette en dehors is a turn in which the dancer's body rotates and completes at least one full revolution with one foot on the floor. It is considered difficult to learn and perform in classical ballet. The purpose of this study was to identify biomechanical kinetic differences between the successful- and unsuccessful-trials groups in triple turn pirouette en dehors motion. It was hypothesized that the successful trials group would have larger longitudinal whole body angular momentum (AM), pivoting moment (PM) and ground reaction force moment (GRFM) than the unsuccessful trials group. Forty skilled collegiate or professional classic ballet dancers (11 males and 29 females) were recruited for this study. The participants were divided into two groups based on their successful and unsuccessful trials. Selected variables were computed through a seven-camera (Qualisys-three-dimensional) motion capture system (250 Hz) and two force-plates (Kistler-2500Hz), with 48 reflective markers. The data was imported into the Kwon3D (5.0) motion analysis software for subsequent data processing. Three MANOVA (SPSS 25.0) were used to compare the dependent variables between successful trials group and unsuccessful trials group conditions (each MANOVA was set p < .025). The first MANOVA was completed to compare all primary variables. The second MANOVA was performed to compare expannatory variables. The peak longitudinal AM, AM generation rate, and peak combined PM, gesture foot PM at TPM (time of peak PM) and gesture foot horizontal GRF at TPM were significantly different between the successful- and unsuccessful-trials groups. The successful trials group was characterized by larger whole body longitudinal AM, AM generation rate and peak PM, meaning this group demonstrated superiority in the generation of angular motion. The unsuccessful trials group had an inefficient double-to-single stance phase for the kinetic variables which caused unsuccessful triple turn pirouette en dehors motion. While peak PM is lower for the unsuccessful trials group, a loss of whole body AM and AM rate creates a failed motion. Kinetics plays a major role in the performance of the triple-turn pirouette en dehors. Further investigation to compare kinematic variables for successful- and unsuccessful- trials group is warranted. ItemA comparison of a school district's music curriculum and ensemble directors' expectations of preparedness within a feeder pattern(7/23/2018) King, Kelli R; Youngblood, PamelaThe purpose of this study was to compare the level of ensemble directors’ expectations of musical knowledge and skills of their students entering 5th, 7th, and 9th grade in schools within a district feeder pattern. The researcher-designed survey was based on the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for the grade level students had completed the previous year. Participants (N=51) included elementary music specialists and intermediate, middle, and high school band and choir directors employed by a large suburban school district. Band and choir directors and elementary specialists had similar expectations for 3 out of 15 (20%) musical concepts for incoming 5th graders. Band and choir directors had similar expectations for 6 out of 17 (35%) musical concepts for incoming 7th graders and 4 out of 11 (36%) musical concepts for incoming 9th graders. These results suggest that the district could benefit from greater vertical collaboration. ItemA comparison of music literacy scores between 6th and 7th grade band and choir students in relationship to practice regimen, private instruction, ensemble membership, and student/teacher ratio(6/20/2018) Burton, Stephanie R; Baker, Vicki D.; Woolery, Danielle; Thomas, PaulThe purpose of the study is to compare the development of music literacy skills between 6th and 7th grade band and choral students and determine what factors lead to higher achievement. Data were collected while surveying 5 middle school choir and band directors and collecting scores from their district’s benchmark test that they administered to their 24 ensembles/classes at the beginning and the end of the Fall semester to measure their students’ musical literacy. Results showed that the five groups with the highest gains in scores were four 6th-grade band classes (bassoon, trumpet, percussion, clarinet) and one 7th-grade band. Among these five groups, 100% were required to practice outside of class hours, 80% had a student/teacher ratio of 13:1 or less, and 60% had students that were either selected or auditioned. Thirty-eight percent of the combined membership of the five groups were enrolled in private lessons. ItemA comparison of the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of nutrigenomics between dietetic students in the USA and Mexico(2/5/2019) VanBuren, Christine A.; Imrhan, Victorine; Prasad, ChandanThe purpose of this study was to compare nutrition/dietetic students from Texas Woman’s University (TWU) and Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL) in respect to their perceived need, interest, and knowledge of different topics within nutritional genomics. A nutritional genomics survey was administered to students at UANL and compared to students at TWU that had taken the survey as part of a previous study. The data was analyzed using chi-square test of homogeneity and Fisher’s exact test. The results showed that students from TWU and UANL differed from each other in their knowledge level, desire to learn more, and perceived need for ‘omic’ technologies. Both TWU and UANL students lack a high level of knowledge about different ‘omic’ topics but recognize the important role that ‘omics’ will play in their future careers as dietitians. ItemA comparison of the impact of curriculum on the perceived level of self-determination in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities(1/2/2019) Guthrie, Terry Mike; Pemberton, JaneHigher levels of perceived self-determination (SD) in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often correlate to improved post-school outcomes in education, employment, independent living, and relationships. It is imperative that instructional practices used with students with IDD address the behaviors and skills that a person must possess to be self-determined. This study used a quasi-experimental design to measure the perceived level of self-determination (SD) and the four essential characteristics of self-determined behavior and skills: autonomy, self-regulation, psychological empowerment, and self-realization in 18 adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The curriculum used was Life Centered Education (LCE) (Wandery, Wehmeyer & Glor-Scheib, 2013). Results of the study revealed statistically significant differences in self-regulation interpersonal cognitive problem-solving norm sample and self-regulation interpersonal cognitive problem-solving positive scores between participants with an intellectual disability compared to those with a developmental disability. Additionally, there were significant differences in mean scores between disabilities in all four essential characteristics of self-determination. ItemA content analysis of 10 scholarly journals from 2007-2017: What has been written about long term African American married couples(12/20/2018) Chism-Nicholas, Edna; Armstrong, Joyce; Gillum, NerissaThe purpose of this study was to examine what has been written about long term African American marriages in 10 selected scholarly journals. Marriages greatly impact multiple domains and relationships in the African American community. There is a multitude of marital research in many social science fields. However, there is a lack of literature as it specifically relates to African American long-term couples. Due to the lack of literature in this field it would benefit social science professionals, especially family therapists, to learn more about these relationships. In this study the researcher utilized a quantitative and qualitative approach to explore the literature, identifying themes found in the journal articles. The major themes discovered were Spirituality, Cultural issues, Equity, and Family. The Journal of Black Studies had the largest number of articles on the topic with 4 of 3,877 (0.00103%) articles being relevant to the research topic. Recommendations for future research were suggested. ItemA content analysis of battering interventions: Development of a unified framework for treating relationally violent men(12/7/2020) Slack, Christopher S.; Porras Pyland, Claudia; Stabb, SallyMen’s violence against women in the form of intimate partner violence (IPV) has been an ongoing concern worldwide. While awareness of IPV and interventions for survivors of IPV have grown over the last several decades, relatively little attention has been given to improving battering intervention programs (BIPs) that address men’s violence. Existing data from BIPs show that relationally violent men (RVM) can be a very difficult population to treat. Meta-analyses across BIPs with differing theoretical ideologies show that these programs tend to struggle to retain RVM and have small effects on decreasing recidivism. The current dissertation conducted a content analysis of the available BIP literature addressing men’s violence to develop a more wholistic and unified psychotherapy approach for treating RVM. Propositions related to the causes of IPV, hypotheses regarding treatment, and corresponding operational definitions of interventions were identified in the BIP literature focused on treatment interventions. From this content analysis, a unified model of treating RVM was developed. The resulting unified approach for treating RVM may help to inform future treatment directions and improve the effectiveness of BIP programs in reducing men’s violence and preventing drop out. By allowing therapists and BIP facilitators to respond more flexibly and encouraging a more wholistic view of RVM, it is also hoped that this unified approach will aid facilitators looking to expand their repertoire of skills and conceptualization of RVM. ItemA content analysis of evidence-based romantic adult attachment articles: How marital satisfaction is impacted by couple reports of spirituality/religiosity(11/27/2017) Hunter, Melissa; Ladd, Linda, Ph. D.; Brock, Linda J.; McCarroll, ElizabethThe purpose of this research was to examine romantic adult attachment theory and how marital satisfaction is impacted by spirituality/religiosity, while also exploring how spirituality influences conflict and communication in marriages. A content analysis was used to further investigate these variables by comparing ten articles from scholarly peer-reviewed journals. The researcher created a Coding Form and taught two coders to code the data by using a Coding Guide. This dissertation was guided by the research questions: “How have research-based articles published in scholarly journals addressed how romantic adult attachment, marital satisfaction, communication, and /or conflict are impacted when spirituality/ religiosity is added as a variable to these studies?” And “What are the gaps and limitations in the research based on romantic adult attachment, marital satisfaction, communication and/or conflict plus spirituality/religiosity when articles from 1992-2017 are considered?” Currently, there is no review of how spirituality/religiosity and romantic adult attachment interact with marital satisfaction, conflict, and communication in a therapeutic environment. Having the knowledge of this interaction will help therapists better use spirituality/religiosity as a factor in their therapeutic process. When the researcher examined the variables in the ten articles, it became apparent that conflict and communication were insufficiently supported by the journal articles. The prominent variables in this content analysis then became spirituality/religiosity and marital satisfaction. It was found that anxiety attachment is not related to some religious coping such as praying or attending faith services. Those with avoidant attachment demonstrated both higher and/or lower religious coping. Another finding was how attachment to God mirrors romantic adult attachment. Marital satisfaction correlated with commitment level and couple’s attitude. Some factors identified as risks or resilience were community, attitude towards divorce, willingness to seek help, commitment, church attendance, prayer, and forgiveness. Future research is needed on how gender impacts both spirituality and attachment. Several of the articles determined that gender impacted attachment, but had inconclusive findings due to limited attention and/or research. Another area where more research is needed is with intercultural/cultural relationships. Family of origin and the impact it has on an adult’s spirituality/religiosity is also needed to be studied more in depth. ItemA content analysis of peer-reviewed journal articles: How is mindfulness applied in couples therapy in the mental health field?(5/2/2018) Runge, Lori J.; Ladd, Linda; Brock, Linda J.; Muro, JoelABSTRACT LORI J. RUNGE M.S. A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL ARTICLES: HOW IS MINDFULNESS APPLIED IN COUPLES THERAPY IN THE MENTAL HEALTH FIELD? March 2018 The rationale behind this study is to understand how mental health professionals currently use and apply mindfulness in couples therapy. This study was guided by two primary research questions: “Since 2000, how are mindfulness interventions and techniques applied in couples therapy in the mental health profession with relationship to understanding variables such as well-being, empathy, self-esteem, and emotional regulation?” and “How have researchers explored and expanded the usefulness of mindfulness in evidenced based research journals specific to couple therapy in the mental health profession with particular examination on relationship satisfaction?” This study included articles retrieved from peer reviewed scholarly research journals with emphasis on the mental health profession. Articles that were published between 2000-2017 with content pertaining to mindfulness in couples therapy were retrieved for analysis. There were 13 peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles that met the final criteria for inclusion in this study. The coding procedure began by developing a coding form to assist the coding team in analyzing the collected data. The final sample of 13 articles were then coded for relevant information applicable to mindfulness in couples therapy. Three major themes emerged from the coding process; mindfulness was found to have a positive effect in relationship satisfaction, emotional reactivity and acceptance and awareness. These themes give insight into how mindfulness is being applied and used in the mental health field in couples therapy. The potential benefits of mindfulness on relationships have only recently begun to be explored. The results of this content analysis have multiple implications for researchers to add to the understanding and application of mindfulness in the mental health profession with emphasis on the benefits of mindfulness in regard to relationships. In summary, mindfulness is not just a tool or technique, it is a way of being (Kabat-Zinn, 1990). Shapiro and Carlson (2017) stated that, “Mindfulness is both a process (mindful practice) and an outcome (mindful awareness)” (p. 10). Understanding that mindfulness has tools and techniques that can be taught to individuals and couples to benefit their lives can be confusing due to the fact that there is not a definitive understanding of the mechanisms underlying the positive changes reported in research study results. Blending ancient philosophies of the East into the Western world of modern science is indeed encircled with challenges; and yet the possibilities of bringing these two epistemologies together creates enormous potential and opportunities to diminish the suffering of clients in the mental health profession. ItemA convergent parallel mixed method study on the experience of coping during high-risk pregnancy and prescribed bed rest(5/14/2019) Boyd, Ellen; Freysteinson, Wyona M.Antepartum bed rest and hospitalization are frequently prescribed for high-risk women experiencing pregnancy complications. Bed rest may result in problems for the high-risk mother including isolation, boredom, anxiety, depression and separation from their families. The aim of this study is to analyze the coping behaviors of high-risk pregnant women hospitalized and prescribed bed rest. Also, to describe the lived experience of high-risk pregnant women hospitalized and prescribed bed rest. A convergent parallel mixed method design was used to analyze the coping behaviors of 40 high-risk pregnant women. A secondary analysis of data from the Brief Cope Scale (Carver, 1997) was used for the quantitative portion. Transcripts from the same 40 high-risk mothers were reviewed as a secondary analysis using a Step-by-Step Simple Thematic Analysis (Nowell Norris, White & Moules, 2017). The most frequently identified maternal coping behaviors were emotional support, positive reframing, religion, acceptance, instrumental support and planning. The less frequently used coping behaviors were self-distraction, humor, substance use, self-blame, denial and behavioral disengagement. The overreaching theme from the qualitative analysis was Coping in High-Risk Pregnancy. Seven themes were identified from the transcripts: Family Burdens, Fearfully Waiting, Leaning on Faith, Hope, Acceptance, Knowledge Seeking and Support Enhances Maternal Coping. Quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated to identify those behaviors that were convergent or divergent in this mixed method design. By identifying adaptive coping behaviors of high-risk hospitalized mothers antepartum care may be improved. ItemA descriptive phenomenological study of nursing student experiences of clinical data use in clinical rotations(11/9/2017) Straughn, Marcia; Liu, Fuqin, 1977-; Lee, Mikyoung; Zeigler, VickiClinical learning experiences are important opportunities for nursing students in that they gather and synthesize data of patients’ conditions, provide appropriate nursing interventions, and evaluate patient outcomes, applying their knowledge and skills learned from the classroom in real practice. In order to ensure quality clinical learning for nursing students, it is vital to hear the voices of nursing students on how they experience clinical learning, particularly with regards to clinical data use. This qualitative, exploratory approach was conducted, using descriptive phenomenology as the philosophical framework, through in-depth interviews with eighteen junior and senior baccalaureate nursing students at a large, public university in Texas. The interview data were analyzed according to Colaizzi’s method of descriptive phenomenological data analysis. Theme 1: Help Wanted was revealed in descriptions of needing or wanting help with using clinical data. Theme 2: Making Sense, included descriptions about ways that clinical data make sense and ways that clinical data assisted students in making sense in both clinical and classroom. Theme 3: Recognizing Usefulness emerged from descriptions of how clinical data was used or could be used. Participant descriptions of how clinical data in clinical rotations was related to communication illuminated Theme 4: Engaging in Communication. Descriptions of the impact of the assigned nurse on student experiences with using clinical data in clinical rotations resulted in the emergence of Theme 5: Nurse as Key Player. Lastly, Theme 6: Emotionally Charged, emerged from descriptions about emotional experiences related to experiences of clinical data use in clinical rotations. The thematic findings were reduced according to Colaizzi’s method, resulting in an exhaustive statement of description, and a descriptive statement of identification of the phenomenon of interest. The findings may be used to assist nurse educators in developing effective ways to help students use clinical data for effective clinical learning. Suggestions to achieve this aim include improved orientation for educators and nursing staff and emotional support for students. Policy development to address barriers to effective clinical learning and the development of the future nursing workforce remains an important strategy for supporting nursing students and their preparation for entry into professional nursing practice. ItemA Developmental English shuffle: Analyzing the impact of one Texas community college’s shift from multi-level stand-alone offerings to corequisite courses(4/5/2021) Dole, Ivan; Scott, GrayDevelopmental English (DE) has been under fire from critics who think it acts as a barrier rather than as a support to the success of students placing into DE. In Texas, such pressures led to a wave of reforms and changes affecting delivery and structure of DE instruction. This dissertation draws on years of internal data at one community college to explore the impacts of these changes on student success. Overall, DE students found success (68.5%) at the same rate as their college-ready counterparts (64.7%). There was a significant difference between Prerequisite support and Corequisite support (p < .001) with Prerequisite having the greater effect on success. There was also significant difference between Hybrid, Lecture, and Online offerings. Hybrid was found to be the most effective modality and Online the least effective. Additionally, a multiple linear regression predicted a success rate of 93.5% if a DE student took a 16-week, Fall-term, Hybrid freshman composition course with Prerequisite support. While there are limitations and more questions to consider, the study’s exploratory and quantitative findings offer direct implications for DE faculty, programs, and administrators. ItemA gender analysis of Texas university interscholastic league band concert and sight reading evaluation adjudication panels from 2010-2019(5/21/2020) Najera, Melinda; Baker, Vicki D.The purpose of this study was to determine the male-female ratio of band directors serving on adjudication panels for Texas University Interscholastic League (UIL) concert and sight reading evaluations from 2010 to 2019. The gender makeup of the adjudication panels used in band UIL concert and sight reading evaluation for middle school and high school from 2010 to 2019 were recorded. Data were analyzed by gender, region, and grade level (middle school and high school). Results indicate that the average percentage of female UIL band adjudicators hired between 2010 and 2019 was 16.6%, and there were 5.5% more female judges in 2019 than in 2010. Of the 1,482 combined concert and sight reading evaluation panels from 2010-2019, the percentage of all-female panels was 0.2%, and the percentage of all-male panels was 43.1%. In the past decade, a larger percentage of females were hired to judge middle school evaluations (71%) than high school evaluations (25%). ItemA light in the flame: Perceived burnout among underrepresented minority physician assistant educators in the United States(7/12/2021) Sturges, Daytheon; Massey-Stokes, MarilynThere is a keen interest surrounding burnout in academic medicine with an existing need for more studies regarding the subject (Dandar et al., 2019). The priority population for this study were underrepresented minority (URM) physician assistant (PA) educators in the United States. The purpose was to determine external and internal contributors that lead to perceived burnout, as well as to investigate if primary and secondary appraisal inform burnout coping strategies. The study also sought to determine if there was an existing relationship between demographic factors (gender, age, self-identified race, faculty role, and “years in faculty position”) and emotional exhaustion (EE). This study employed a mixed-methods research design using a convenience sample representative of URM PA educators from across the United States (n = 101). For the quantitative portion of the study, the participants completed a demographics survey and the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Educators Survey from which their average EE score was calculated. For the qualitative portion of the study, 11 participants were interviewed to identify burnout perception, burnout contributors, and burnout coping strategies. An independent samples t test, Pearson’s r correlation, multiple linear regression, and one-way analysis of variances were used to determine the relationship between demographic variables and EE. Qualitative data were analyzed by categorizing the findings into codes and organizing the themes into parent nodes. Data analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between gender and EE. This relationship demonstrated that women URM PA educators experience burnout at increased rates compared to men URM PA educators. There were no statistically significant relationships between age (r = .015, R2 = .000225, p = .883), self-identified race (F (1, 98) = .108, p = .744, η2 = .001), faculty role (F (1, 97) = 3.09, p = .082, η2 = .031), and “years in faculty position” and EE (F (1, 99) = .271, p = .604, η2 = .003). The overall predictive model of the demographic variables and EE score was not statistically significant (F(5, 92) = 1.859, p = .109, R2 = .092, adjusted R2 = 0.042). The qualitative data offered insight into burnout perception, contributors, coping strategies, current institutional and programmatic burnout strategies, suggested institutional and programmatic burnout strategies, common occupational stressors, initial responses to occupational stressors, and overall experiences of URM PA educators. Study results yielded insight regarding burnout perception among URM PA educators in the United States. In turn, these findings can be used to inform future health education interventions aimed at preventing burnout among URM PA educators. ItemA mixed method analysis of the role of balance outcome measures in therapist decision-making and patient outcomes(10/30/2020) Lyon, Marissa F; GLEESON, PEGGY BThe purpose of these three studies was to assess the impact of using outcome measures on physical therapists' decision-making and patient functional outcomes. Three hundred thirty-seven physical therapists completed an online survey focused on their use of outcome measures and their relationship with decision-making for patients with acquired brain injury. Physical therapists reported that the use of outcome measures frequently impacted decision-making in estimating prognosis, identifying a patient's risk for adverse events, setting goals, communicating, educating, making discharge decisions, and selecting treatment interventions. Twenty-three physical therapists participated in semi-structured interviews focused on outcome measures' impact on decision-making and patient outcomes. Therapists indicated that outcome measures played a large role in clinical decisions, and a majority reported they believed there was a relationship between outcome measures and patient outcomes. Finally, eight physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) participated in a knowledge translation intervention focused on outcome measures. Patients treated by these therapists demonstrated significantly better ambulation ability and participated in significantly fewer minutes of physical therapy compared to patients treated by six PTs and PTAs who did not participate in an educational intervention. ItemA mixed-method, factorial examination of men's and women's perceptual and affective responses to ideal, actual, and average male and female bodies(10/16/2017) Diekhoff, Deana; Porras Pyland, Claudia; Stabb, Sally D.; Reimers, Faye; Rosen, LisaBody image issues have traditionally been perceived as women’s issues, but this is no longer true. Both men and women are impacted by social pressures to look perfect (Calogero & Thompson, 2010; Grogan, 2008). Adolescents and young adults are most at-risk for maladaptive behaviors related to body image issues (Eisenberg, Wall, & Neumark-Sztainer, 2012; Fernandez & Pritchard, 2012; Frederick et al., 2007; Salk & Engeln-Maddox, 2012). The literature on body image dissatisfaction is immense, but only 12 research articles were published between 2005 and 2015 dealing specifically with men’s and women’s perceptions of the ideal female and male bodies. Eight these studies were international and used samples that may not represent the U.S. population. Many used relatively small samples that limited statistical power (Warner, 2008). Finally, most of the studies used a small number of artificial body stimuli (e.g., figural outlines, body silhouettes) and required that subjects choose a single stimulus that captured the “ideal” male or female body. There were three overarching goals of the present mixed-method, factorial examination of men’s and women’s perceptions of male and female bodies: (a) to correct some of the methodological flaws of previous studies, (b) to contribute to the literature on the basic processes involved in body perception, and (c) to inform the therapeutic efforts of clinicians who work with clients with body image issues. Results showed that participants used different perceptual filters when perceiving male and female bodies. Female stimuli were sorted on the basis of observers’ evaluative and affective reaction. Males were sorted based largely on judgments of potency. Men were more likely than women to identify female bodies as ideal if they were curvy, with larger breasts, and less muscle definition. Women more frequently viewed athletic female bodies as ideal. There was far more gender consensus on the ideal male body. Both men and women reacted more negatively to same-gender ideals than to opposite-gender ideals. Men and women reported equal levels of body dissatisfaction. Personal fitness variables shaped several aspects of body perception and over a dozen statistically significant correlations linked physical fitness variables to body perception outcomes.