Psychology & Philosophy

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    The effects of empowerment messaging on action responses to climate change
    (Dec-23) Campos, Jamie 1992-; Porras Pyland, Claudia; Mollen, Debra; Terrizzi Jr., John A; Nelson, Annika
    Global climate change has many complex impacts that are cascading and increasing with a lack of direct action. Indirect and direct impacts on human life occur as a result of climate change that disproportionately impact marginalized communities. The psychological impacts of climate change are discussed, including ecological anxiety and ecological grief. The effects of powerlessness and psychological empowerment are discussed concerning their effects on psychological adaptation. In this study, I examined whether a visual message of empowerment or powerlessness will influence participants’ psychological responses to climate change in a sample of 131 participants. Neither empowerment nor powerlessness narratives had an effect on levels of psychological adaptation, and climate anxiety did not exacerbate this proposed effect. There was no evidence to suggest that climate change denial moderated this proposed effect. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.
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    Predictors of help-seeking for mental health in Latinx Americans
    (Dec-23) Dimas, Dearah Alexandra 1999-; Hart, Christian; Rosen, Lisa; Rivers, Alannah
    Rates of mental illness in the Latinx community have continued to increase, yet Latinxs are less likely to seek mental health help compared to other ethnic and racial groups. The current study assesses the role self-stigma, perceived stigma, acculturation, and perceived discrimination have on Latinx's mental health help-seeking attitudes. I conducted an online survey to assess the relationship between self-stigma, perceived stigma, acculturation, perceived discrimination, and mental health help-seeking attitudes. The survey was distributed online, and participants were required to be at least 18 years of age and of Latinx descent. The survey asked participants for their demographic information and included four scales. The scales used include the Mental Help Seeking Attitude Scale, three subscales from the Stigma and Self-Stigma Questionnaire, the Everyday Discrimination Scale, and The Psychological Acculturation Scale. Results from correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed that self-stigma and perceived stigma were significant predictors of mental health help-seeking attitudes in Latinxs while acculturation and discrimination did not significantly predict mental health help-seeking attitudes in Latinxs.
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    Positive neurobiopsychosocial mechanisms of artscience and kinesthetic performance: Analysis of the ABCD data
    (Dec-23) Galindo, Monica Ivette 1983-; Ronald Palomares-Fernandez, PhD; Courtney Banks, PhD; Gabrielle Smith, PhD
    This research study examined how movement, expressive arts, and acculturation influenced neurodevelopment, as evinced by executive function and body mass index, among a group of preadolescents. The investigation was conducted based on the synthesis of findings from interdisciplinary neurobiopsychosocial research that helped establish the dual relevance of synchronized cognitive and gut well-being and functioning. Through this operative lens, a child’s lifespan trajectory can be influenced by physical and environmental factors that are protective of or destructive to overall lifespan development. Using archival data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development national study, protective factors such as kinesthetic performance- and ArtScience-related activities were found to significantly impact executive function and body mass index in a sample of approximately 4,000 9–11-year-olds identified as either Latinx or non-Latinx. No significant differences were found between ethnic groups. The results of this study expand on the idea that a child’s access to culturally responsive intervention is associated with higher executive function and healthier body mass index. Although there was a positive pattern with respect to acculturation and executive function, the results were not statistically significant. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
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    Parent problem-focused coping and social support coping in children
    (Dec-23) Tinajero, Axel; Rosen, Lisa; Hart, Christian; Terrizzi Jr., John A
    This research examined parent coping socialization using secondary data from the TWU Family Project. Parent-child dyads completed children’s social support coping measures and parents’ problem-focused coping measures. The first hypothesis: a negative correlation between parent problem-focused coping and child social support seeking coping was not supported by the correlation analysis. The second hypothesis: gender moderates the relationship between parent problem-focused coping strategies and child social support coping, where girls have a weaker relationship was not supported by the linear regression analysis. Exploratory analyses revealed that parent’s expressive encouragement significantly predicted increased child’s problem-focused coping, where a significant interaction was observed between parents’ expressive encouragement and gender, specifically girls scored higher. Gender differences were seen in the associations between parents responding with expressive encouragement and their children’s social support coping, girls had a marginally significant association, while boys did not. These results highlight parental coping socialization and gender coping differences.
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    Relationships between purity culture, disgust sensitivity, and women’s sexual satisfaction
    (Dec-23) Lu, Candice Lin; Mollen, Debra; Stabb, Sally; Terrizzi Jr., John A
    Rhetoric of shame, fear, and defilement are rife in teachings of the Evangelical Purity Movement (EPM) and abstinence-only-until-marriage (AOUM) sex education. There is a proliferation of purity messages in the U.S. that attempt to promote the preservation of girls’ and women’s chastity by endorsing harm-based narratives and withholding accurate information about sexuality. However, the extant literature has focused more on relationships between purity culture or AOUM sex education and consequences of shame and adolescent sexual behavior, possibly to the exclusion of developmental considerations and the longer-term impact on women’s sexual and relational well-being. Recent research has also acknowledged associations between religiosity and gender inequality, religious fundamentalism and disgust sensitivity, as well as gender inequality and female sexual dysfunction; however, less is known regarding the impact of purity culture beliefs on women’s disgust sensitivity and sexual satisfaction. The researcher utilized measures of sexual satisfaction, comprised of five domains; disgust sensitivity; self-disgust; and purity culture beliefs; and assessed for relevant demographic factors and participation in purity culture rituals. The researcher recruited women who currently or previously identified as Christian (n = 491) and conducted correlational and multiple regression analyses to test their hypotheses. The data generally did not support the predicted positive relationship between purity culture beliefs and disgust sensitivity (Hypothesis 1), instead revealing a small, unexpected negative association. As expected, the data confirmed significant negative relationships between purity culture beliefs and sexual satisfaction (Hypothesis 2). The results indicated a small, positive relationship between disgust sensitivity and sexual satisfaction, contrary to Hypothesis 3, whereas the predicted negative association between self-directed disgust and sexual satisfaction (Hypothesis 4) was confirmed. The data also provided evidence for a significant interaction between sexual communication and disgust (Hypothesis 5); both predictors also independently exhibited significant associations with sexual satisfaction. Additional findings, limitations, and implications are discussed.
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    Using critical race theory to center BIPOC students' experiences in undergraduate psychology courses with a multicultural focus taught by white faculty
    (Dec-23) Comiskey, Allison; Mollen, Debra; Stabb, Sally; Williams, Marlene
    Colleges and universities have increasingly incorporated multicultural courses into general education requirements for undergraduate students. Simultaneously, higher education has become more racially diverse in recent years, with Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) comprising nearly half of student body populations (Espinosa et al., 2019). Despite these trends, multicultural courses can recapitulate oppressive societal patterns and neglect the needs of BIPOC students (Pieterse et al., 2016; Seward & Guiffrida, 2012). In addition, researchers have documented how issues such as colorblind attitudes (Bell, 2002), ineptitude for managing difficult racial dialogues (Wing Sue et al., 2009), and problematic pedagogies (Applebaum, 2016) among white faculty members enact harm against BIPOC students. While prior research has begun to elucidate some of the issues implicated in graduate education multicultural courses, the experiences of BIPOC undergraduate students in multicultural psychology courses taught by white faculty members has been understudied. To fill this void, I sought to understand this topic through a critical race theory (CRT) lens supplemented with additional critical theories (intersectionality, critical white studies, and critical pedagogy) by qualitatively examining BIPOC undergraduate students’ experiences in psychology courses containing multicultural content that were taught by white faculty members. Semi-structured interviews with nine participants were analyzed using narrative inquiry methodology to center the experiential knowledge of BIPOC undergraduate students. Analyses from these interviews yielded six core narratives and 20 subthemes shared across participants. The core narratives included: experiences with the climates of their classes; enactments of harm and oppression; oppressive pedagogy; the impact of harm and oppression; positive learning experiences; and future directions for improving multicultural teaching. Implications for theory, teaching, and future research are discussed.
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    The effects of cultural orientation and the sex-typing of personality on physical aggression
    (Dec-23) Low, Sarah Jo 06/09/1999-;; Terrizzi Jr., John A
    This study aimed to investigate whether neuroticism positively predicted physical aggression and if agreeableness was a negative predictor, with cultural orientation (specifically horizontal individualism) and sex-typing of personality (masculinity) as potential moderators. A multiple regression analysis revealed that agreeableness significantly and negatively predicted proactive physical aggression, whereas neuroticism did not positively predict. Introducing horizontal individualism as a moderator showed that cultural orientation did significantly moderate the relationship between neuroticism or agreeableness and physical aggression. Additionally, while the trait of masculinity itself did not significantly predict physical aggression, it did moderate the relationship between neuroticism and aggression. Masculinity did not influence the relationship between agreeableness and aggression. The findings suggest that cultural orientation and sex-typed personality traits play a role in the dynamics of personality and aggression. The study sheds light on the complexities of these relationships, emphasizing the importance of considering both individual personality differences and broader cultural and gendered influences in understanding aggressive behavior.
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    Parenting behaviors and resilience: A mediating for emotional regulation across trauma exposure
    (Dec-23) King, Olivia; Herbstrith, Julie; Johnson, Wendi L.; Smith, Gabrielle
    Despite the high prevalence of trauma across the lifespan, there is limited research on trauma that occurs in childhood and adolescence and the effects that a person experiences later in life as an adult. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been consistently well-defined, but their impacts, in conjunction with other environmental factors and individual abilities, have not been identified. Expressly, resilience, or the occurrence of post-traumatic growth following an adverse event, of adults who experienced trauma in childhood and adolescents has limited research in association with relevant variables. For example, parenting behaviors, such as responsiveness and demandingness, have been identified to have lasting impacts on offspring’s psychological well-being. Parents also model methods of emotion regulation (ER) and its practice. Results illustrated a statistical significance in resilience scores based on the total number of ACEs. Parental responsiveness and parental demand significantly predicted resilience separately. A mediation analysis demonstrated a partial mediation between parental responsiveness and resilience through ER. Similarly, results illustrated a partial mediation between parental demand and resilience through ER. From these results, more information about the relationship between trauma and resilience has been explained that can inform and target specific interventions across the lifespan and identify areas of future research.
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    Spanish-speaking clients' experiences in therapy
    (Dec-23) Shelton Zaremba, Rebekah Jolie 12/07/1987-; Stabb, Sally; Porras Pyland, Claudia; Rosa-Davila, Emarely
    As the Latinx population in the United States continues to grow, psychologists should deepen their understanding of how to provide multiculturally aware services to this population focusing not only on English-Spanish bilingual trainees’, supervisors’, and therapists’ experiences. This phenomenological qualitative inquiry sought to answer the question: What are Spanish-speaking Latinxs clients’ experiences in bilingual or Spanish-only therapy? Eight Latinx participants who met age, language, and therapy experience criteria were interviewed. Participants expressed appreciation for the language-specific services and recommended that services be advertised better and made more accessible for other Latinx clients. They were also grateful for the opportunity to connect relationally with their therapists who they could trust and by whom they felt heard and understood. Most participants felt more connected with Latinx-identified therapists and believed this led to more effective therapy. While participants predominantly reported positive experiences, challenges and negative experiences were also disclosed and explored. Results are integrated with current scholarship. Discussion of the implications of the results for practice, research and training are included, along with the study's strengths and limitations.
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    Factor analyses on the validity of the Wechsler measures of cognitive functioning
    (Aug-23) Paulman, Briana; Maricle, Denise E; Johnson, Wendi L.; Rosen, Lisa; Joel Schneider
    Beginning over a century ago, intelligence has been and currently is one of the most widely studied phenomena in the field of psychology. Still, there is a lack of consensus in the field on the definition and conceptualization of intelligence with researchers developing numerous theories to better understand it. Corollary to the debate over the concept of intelligence itself, methods of reliably measuring intelligence are also of concern. The widespread use of intelligence testing in a variety of settings, including educational, clinical, and private practice puts this point in sharp relief. Given the widespread use of intellectual assessments, it is imperative that practitioners utilizing such assessments are well-versed in the instruments, including what cognitive abilities are measured and how to interpret the results. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC-V), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV), and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV) are three related cognitive assessment measures developed to assess general intelligence and a combination of several broad abilities: verbal comprehension (Gc), visual-spatial processing (Gv), fluid reasoning (Gf), short-term working memory (Gwm), and processing speed (Gs). The Wechsler cognitive assessment instruments were developed with theories and cognitive models from several domains, including cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, and specific cognitive abilities such as memory, attention, and executive functioning. However, it is debated whether the factor structure of the Wechsler instruments measures the cognitive abilities as outlined by the test publishers. The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the factor structure of the Wechsler cognitive assessment instruments against two models of cognitive abilities. The models examined were the CHC Theory of Intelligence and the Functional-CHC Model of Cognitive Ability to determine which model best fits the sample data from the Wechsler standardization samples. The data analyses included multiple exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the Wechsler standardization samples for each instrument. The present study attempted to provide a more comprehensive understanding of general intelligence and cognitive abilities in children, adolescents, and adults. Results of the present study provided support for some of the hypothesized broad abilities posited by both the F-CHC model and the CHC theory, particularly Gc, Gr/Gf, Gcm/Gwm, Gv, and Gs. Results also provided partial support for some of the hypothesized narrow abilities. However, the Wechsler instruments utilized do not appear robust enough to truly investigate the validity of the full F-CHC model and all the narrow abilities. This limitation and others are discussed as well as implications and future research directions.
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    Factors related to lies within medical context
    (May-23) Turner, Claire; Hart, Christian; Hart, Christian; Hart, Christian L; Kelly-Ricks, Nila; Kelly-Ricks, Nila; Smith, Gabrielle; Hart, Christian; Harding, Brian
    Lying is a nearly universal phenomenon, yet the characteristics, motivations, and reasoning behind deception are quite intricate. For instance, psychological factors such as shame, guilt, embarrassment, and social anxiety all influence one’s likelihood to lie. Additionally, deception is a social occurrence, and it appears in many settings, such as medical environments. While multiple studies have investigated concepts around lying, few have specifically approached deception within medical care contexts. This includes topics such as doctor-patient relationships, medical care-providing relationships, medical questionnaires, and more. I hypothesize that factors such as social anxiety, embarrassment, shame, and guilt will positively correlate with deceptive reporting in medical contexts while self-esteem will negatively correlate with deceptive reporting. Measures of social anxiety, embarrassment, shame, guilt, self-esteem, and dishonesty in medical contexts were distributed through an online survey. Results indicated significant correlations between psychological factors and lying in clinical settings even when controlling for a person’s general tendency to lie.
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    Perspectives of U.S. military veterans regarding mindfulness practices
    (Aug-23) North, Amanda May Adeline 1997-; Rosen, Lisa; Palomares-Fernandez, Ronald; Smith, Gabrielle
    Mindfulness can be a useful tool to help improve both mental and physical health. It is increasingly being utilized in military and veteran population, with little information about how those populations perceive mindfulness and whether the stigma of mental health impacts that perception. This study received responses from 25 veterans about their familiarity with and opinions of mindfulness. Eighty-four percent had heard of mindfulness, and the overall opinion was positive. Thematic analysis was conducted on the responses to the open-ended questions, and three themes were identified. Participants consistently responded that circumstances are important for the perceived value of the practice of mindfulness, contending that mindfulness is more acceptable for veterans than for active-duty military members. Further research is needed to determine the generalizability of these results.
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    Exploring the relationship between sport-specific variables on eating disorder symptoms in female collegiate athletes
    (Aug-23) Bickerstaff, Bailey Catherine 1997-; Mollen, Debra; Porras Pyland, Claudia; Rosen, Lisa
    Eating disorders among female athletes are increasingly a concern, with a lack of clarity on the causes of eating disorder symptomatology. The researcher investigated the attributing factors to eating disorders and disordered eating by identifying four unique factors: interoceptive awareness, exercise dependence, self-surveillance, and body trust among endurance and non-endurance collegiate female athletes. Female athletes were recruited from universities across the country in all three divisions in the NCAA and NAIA. Fifty-one female collegiate athletes completed five assessments and a demographic questionnaire. The researcher tested hypotheses through multiple regression, t-tests, and correlations. A significant negative correlation was found between interoceptive awareness and self-surveillance. Interoceptive awareness predicted eating disorder risk. Endurance athletes scored higher on measures of exercise dependence and ED risk and lower on measures of IA than their non-endurance counterparts, although these differences were not significant. Clinical, policy, and practical suggestions are provided for coaches and mental health professionals.
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    Investigating the role of premorbid chronic stress in TBI recovery in mice: A pilot study
    (Aug-23) Baird, Abigail; Stabb, Sally; Na, Elisa; Porras Pyland, Claudia; Lybrand, Zane
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a prominent cause of premature death, disability, and financial burden worldwide. Prolonged exposure to stress serves as a precursor to several mental health conditions that are known to complicate the process of recovery from TBI. Animal models offer unique utility to the study of this intersection of affective disorders and TBI. Thus, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the significance of premorbid stress exposure as a risk factor for functional and psychological deficits following TBI in mice. A Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress protocol was employed to induce stress, then both the stressed and non-stressed mice were then randomly assigned to receive either an impact or sham surgery procedure. All mice were assessed for signs of functional recovery and underwent comprehensive behavior testing. Findings from this study indicated that exposure to stress contributed to variable behavior responses in both the acute (two weeks) and post-acute (one month) stages of TBI recovery. Further, differences in anxiety and depression-like behaviors were more pronounced among mice that sustained a moderate TBI, compared to a mild injury. Future research should continue to refine both the procedure for inducing concussion and mild TBI in mice, as well as the procedures for assessing the nuanced functional and behavioral recovery in this population to better understand vulnerability factors that contribute to prolonged recovery.
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    Đời cha ăn mặn, đời con khát nước: Perceptions of intergenerational trauma and parenting styles on self-compassion in adult children of Vietnamese refugees
    (Aug-23) Cao-Nguyen, Vy T. 11/06/1990-; Mollen, Debra; Rosen, Lisa; Williams, Marlene
    Intergenerational trauma originates from distressing experiences that negatively impact survivors and their descendants (O’Neill et al., 2016). Research on intergenerational trauma in Vietnamese refugee families suggests that parent-child relationships can be a path for trauma transmission. Although self-compassion has served as a protective buffer against traumatic symptoms and racial trauma (Chopra, 2021; Germer & Neff, 2015; Neff, 2011), there are no studies that examine the link between both intergenerational trauma and parenting styles on adult children’s self-compassion. The researcher sought to determine if intergenerational trauma and parenting style in Vietnamese refugee families impact their offspring’s ability to engage in self-compassion. Using convenience sampling, the researcher recruited 275 adult participants in the United States who had Vietnamese refugee parents. Participants completed an online self-report questionnaire containing demographic questions, a modified Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) (Han, 2005; Mollica et al., 1992) for each of their parents, the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) (Buri, 1991), and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) (Neff, 2003a). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze demographic data. Bivariate correlations and multiple regressions were used to test hypotheses. Hypothesis 1, which suggested a negative relationship between intergenerational trauma and self-compassion, was partially supported. No significant relationship was found between perceived fathers’ or mothers’ trauma and self-compassion, but fathers’ trauma had a positive relationship with self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification within the self-compassion construct. Hypothesis 2 proposed that higher intergenerational trauma and authoritarian parenting would lead to lower self-compassion; this prediction was not supported. None of the parenting styles moderated intergenerational trauma’s relationship with self-compassion. However, permissive fathering showed a positive association with self-compassion. Authoritarian parenting had a positive association with self-judgment and isolation. Authoritative and permissive parenting in fathers resulted in less self-judgment and isolation. Hypothesis 3 predicted that fathers’ trauma will be more predictive of self-compassion; this was prediction was partially supported. Adult children of Vietnamese refugees reported greater levels of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification when their fathers experienced more trauma. Authoritarian parenting’s positive relationship with children’s self-judgment and sense of isolation were more pronounced when it came from fathers versus mothers. Implications for theory, practice, training, and future research were discussed.
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    The relationships among imposter phenomenon, burnout, and covitality
    (Aug-23) Hufstutler, Madeline; Herbstrith, Julie; Swisher, Megan; Rosen, Lisa
    The mental health functioning of graduate students is subpar when compared with the general population (Evans et al., 2018). One issue that plagues graduate students’ mental health is burnout. A contributor to graduate student burnout is the experience of imposter phenomenon. Imposter phenomenon is an intraindividual phenomenon where individuals experience inadequacy (Clance and Imes, 1978). In terms of solutions, research has shown that positive psychological traits can foster overall wellness (Randolph, 2018). Covitality is defined as the “synergistic effect of positive mental health resulting from the interplay among multiple positive-psychological building blocks” (Furlong et al., 2013, p.3). In essence, covitality purports that the sum of positive psychological traits is greater than a single positive psychological trait. The purpose of the study was to determine whether covitality could moderate the relationship between imposter phenomenon and burnout. This study aimed to address the prevalence rates of imposter phenomenon, burnout, and covitality within the school psychology graduate student population and whether those experiences differed for individuals with marginalized racial identities. The results showed that school psychology graduate students indeed experience symptoms of burnout and imposter phenomenon. Further, the findings suggest that school psychology graduate students with marginalized racial identities experience more symptoms of imposter phenomenon than school psychology graduate students without marginalized identities, which is consistent with the research literature (e.g., Bernard et al., 2017; Cokley et al., 2013; Peteet et al., 2015). Although it does not appear that increasing levels of covitality is an effective means of intervention, researchers should continue to examine the interrelations among covitality, imposter phenomenon, and burnout in an effort to develop solutions that could be implemented in school psychology training programs.
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    Digital dating abuse in the LGBTQIA+ community
    (Aug-23) Wilson, Denzel 1992-; Porras Pyland, Claudia; Stabb, Sally; Rosen, Lisa
    The use of digital media as a medium for interpersonal communication has continued to grow throughout the course of the last several years. Technologies such as text messaging, instant messaging, social media use, and sexting have become commonplace within interpersonal relationships and have become a new method for perpetuating abuse within romantic relationships. A growing body of literature has examined these digital dating abuse (DDA) behaviors among adolescent and college populations, yet few studies have investigated the prevalence of perpetration, victimization, and impact of DDA within the relationships of the LGBTQIA+ community. Current literature has outlined attachment insecurity as a factor in a person’s propensity to experience DDA. However, a person’s level of outness, as it relates to their sexual orientation and/or gender orientation has not been explored in the current literary landscape. The current study aimed to fill gaps in the literature by examining the prevalence of DDA behaviors among the LGBTQIA+ community and the intersection of a person’s level of outness and attachment insecurity on their experience of DDA. Participants completed measures assessing their individual experiences of DDA victimization, attachment styles, and levels of outness of sexual orientation and gender identity. Results revealed that those in the LGBTQIA+ community who tended toward insecure attachment (i.e., anxious attachment and avoidant attachment) reported higher levels of DDA victimization within their romantic relationships. Additionally, results indicated that levels of gender and sexual orientation outness were not related to increased risk of DDA victimization. Limitations and implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.
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    Sensory processing sensitivity among mental health graduate students and mental health professionals
    (Aug-23) Meek, Christian; Stabb, Sally; Williams, Marlene; Rosen, Lisa
    Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS), a biological trait, impacts about 20% of the general population. Previous research has focused on characteristics of the trait and mental health outcomes. This study investigated whether mental health graduate students and mental health professionals had higher SPS than students and professionals in other fields. It also explored what variables might moderate the relationship between SPS and general wellbeing, career wellbeing, and mental health wellbeing for this population. Two hundred and sixty participants completed an online survey to measure SPS and wellbeing. In addition to descriptive statistics, a frequency distribution was conducted to measure the prevalence of low, medium, and high sensitivity individuals among the sample. Sensory Processing Sensitivity was compared to trait negative emotionality to explore differentiating the two traits. SPS scores for participants who identified as graduate students or professionals in a mental health field were compared to those who were not. Gender was tested as a s moderator of the relationship between SPS and the three domains of wellbeing, and additional analyses were conducted exploring demographics variables as moderators of the relationship between SPS, and the three domains of wellbeing. Significant results were found for (1) the relationship between SPS and trait negative emotionality, (2) the comparison between mental health students and professionals and students and professionals not in these fields, and (3) the direct impact of gender, sexual orientation, age, income, years of education, degree earned, status as a student or professional in a mental health field, years of service in a mental health field, and all three domains of wellbeing on SPS. Age and years of service were significant as moderators of the relationship between SPS and mental health wellbeing, and years of service in combination with mental health wellbeing also significantly moderated the relationship between SPS and mental health wellbeing. When participants had higher DASS (higher depression, anxiety, and stress) and higher years of service, then they also had higher SPS scores. Results are integrated with prior literature and implications for research, practice, and policy are noted. Strengths and limitations of the study are discussed.