Health Studies

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    Cognitive function and mental health: Findings from the Dallas Heart Study cohort
    (Dec-23) Curry, Karrie 1977-; Rigby, Brandon; King, George; Amuta, Ann; Berry, Jarret
    Purposes: 1) Explore the relationship between hypertension and cognitive functioning among older adults who participated in the second phase of the Dallas Heart Study (DHS-2) and the Dallas Hearts and Minds Study (DHMS); 2) Understand how cognitive functioning evolves among older adults who participated in the DHS-2 and DHMS; 3) Explore the relationship between depression symptoms and mild cognitive impairment in older African American and Caucasian adults who participated in the DHS-2 and DHMS. Methodology: Cross-lagged correlations determined relationships between hypertension, education, income, depression (measured using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomology), and cognition (measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment) at baseline (DHS-2) and 12 years later (DHMS). Education, income, depression, and resting blood pressure were predictors, with change in cognition as the outcome variable. Multiple standardized correlation coefficients were compared to determine potential paths of relationship between variables across time. A paired samples t-test, with a significance of 0.05, was used to determine how depression and cognitive scores changed over 12 years within African Americans and Caucasians. Results: Participants with hypertension in the DHS-2 had lower scores of cognitive impairment in DHMS (β = .073, p = .026). Participants with lower educational attainment (β = .265, p = .006) and lower income levels (β = .210, p < .001) in the DHS-2 had lower scores of cognitive impairment in the DHMS. The same participants with more depression symptoms had more cognitive impairment in both the DHS-2 (β = -.170, p < .001) and the DHMS (β = -.113, p = .009), and participants with more depression symptoms in the DHS-2 had lower cognitive impairment scores in the DHMS (β = -.088, p = .009). Both African American and Caucasian participants with depression symptoms in the DHS-2 had significantly fewer depression symptoms in the DHMS when controlling for depression symptoms in the DHS-2 (p < .001). The same participants had significantly more cognitive impairment in the DHMS (p < .001). Conclusion: A diagnosis of hypertension may elicit negative changes in cognition over a 12-year period. Individuals from lower socioeconomic status (SES) communities may experience cognitive impairment 12 years later. The presence of depression symptoms may elicit negative changes in cognition over a 12-year period.
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    The role of available resources to identify and treat low-income women with postpartum depression during COVID-19
    (May-23) Cedeño Dávila, Roselyn 1982-; Amuta, Ann; Menn, Mindy; Porras Pyland, Claudia; Porras Pyland, Claudia
    Efforts to address the COVID-19 pandemic have affected the sexual and reproductive health of women with increased cases of domestic violence, deaths among women, and depression. This study aimed to uncover the role of available resources in identifying and treating low-income women with postpartum depression (PPD). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to interview low-income women of childbearing age (18-51), pregnant, or with children aged 2 or younger to learn from their experiences accessing resources to report symptoms and get treated for PPD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Five themes emerged from the interviews including 1. Fear, anxiety, and loss of interest 2. Social support 3. Lack of access to screening 4. Lack of resources for PPD 5. The COVID-19 pandemic. Their experiences reflect the lack of communication between patients and healthcare providers as well as the absence of resources offered to low-income women.
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    COVID-19: a pandemic's impact on psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life of breast cancer patients
    (2023-05-01T05:00:00.000Z) Corona, Irma Marie 1976-; Dillon, Suzanna R; Dillon, Suzanna R; Dillon, Suzanna R; Nichols, David; Menn, Mindy; King, George; Johnson, Ruth; Amuta, Ann; Dillon, Suzanna R
    In January of 2020, the coronavirus, or SARS-COV2, quickly became a pandemic and was detected across the globe, including in the United States. The exponential transmission of the virus was unprecedented, caused an astounding loss of life, and in an instant, it shut down an entire nation. The purpose of this explanatory sequential research study was to examine the psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the breast cancer community in terms of disruption of life, resiliency, medical care decision making, and health-related quality of life based on their personal COVID-19 status as well as that of their family members. A total of 33 participants were recruited all of whom were female breast cancer patients who were or had recently completed radiation therapy at a medical center in Texas. All the participants completed the COVID-19: Impact of the Pandemic and HRQOL in Cancer Patients and Survivors quantitative survey. From the 33 participants, 15 participated in a qualitative follow-up interview to provide a more in-depth understanding of the psychosocial impacts of the pandemic. Based on the findings of descriptive statistics and independent t-tests, the researcher concluded that there were no statistically significant disruptions in patients daily lives or health care or on measures of resilience based on individual or familial COVID-19 status (i.e., testing positive or negative for COVID-19). However, a moderate effect size (d = -.69) was determined for resilience with individuals whose personal status remained negative maintaining resilience despite the pandemic. Regarding health-related quality of life, the researcher concluded that individual as well as familial COVID-19 status had no statistically significant impact on a breast cancer patients’ quality of life, though a medium effect size (d = -.61) was found when examining individual COVID-19 status. As determined through Fisher’s Exact Test, breast cancer patients attended general medical appointment similarly regardless of COVID-19 status; however, breast cancer patients who were COVID-19 negative were statistically more likely to attend cancer related appointments in person than breast cancer patients who tested positive for COVID-19. As concluded from the results of Chi-Square analyses, breast cancer patients’ decisions to attend general medical appointments were impacted if a family member tested positive for COVID-19, though no statistically significant differences were found for attendance of cancer related appointment based on a family member’s COVID-19 positive status. These results were supported by qualitative evidence provided by the breast cancer patients, which offered greater insights on disruption, resilience, quality of life and medical decision making and has implications for community health and medical service providers.
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    Issues concerning return to work
    (2004-12) Strong, Victoria; Chan, Josephine; Spencer, Jean; Rintala, Diana
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    A study of the Outing Club at the Texas State College for Women with implications for program planning
    (1946-06) Suba, Mary; Bourquardez, Virginia
    No abstract available
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    Physical activity levels among master planned community residents compared to traditional neighborhood residents
    (5/20/2022) Hamson Cox, Mckelle; Menn, Mindy
    Master planned communities (MPC) are considered one possible solution to urban sprawl around the world and provide amenities to residents, create a sense of community, often include mixed-land use, and various housing types. The inclusion of amenities and sense of community have many potential benefits to residents of MPCs compared to traditional neighborhoods (typically without extra amenities). Little is known about the physical activity levels of MPCs compared to traditional neighborhoods. To better understand physical activity levels, a survey was created and distributed to residents of South Jordan, Utah—home to both a MPC and traditional neighborhoods. Physical activity levels, demographic information, and exercise self-efficacy for physical activity were analyzed between the two types of neighborhoods to evaluate the differences and determine if the marketed benefits of MPCs translate into everyday practices. No statistically significant difference was found in physical activity levels between master planned community residents and traditional neighborhood residents.
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    Lived experiences of African American breast cancer survivors
    (1/25/2022) Moss Linnear, Kim; Dillon, Suzanna
    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of female African American breast cancer survivors from breast cancer diagnosis through treatment. Currently, approximately 1 in 8 women will receive a breast cancer diagnosis in their lifetime (ACS, 2021). In 2021, it is estimated that 281,550 women in the United States will be diagnosed with breast cancer for the first time, and more than 43,000 women in the United States will die due to breast cancer (Siegel et al., 2021). Specific to Texas, approximately 18,000 women in Texas diagnosed with breast cancer annually with African American women in Texas experiencing higher rates of aggressive and harder-to-treat breast cancer, and lower survival rates (Shimelis et al., 2018; TCR, 2020). Guided by Kleinman’s Explanatory Model of Illness and Critical Race Theory, this study explored African American women’s experiences with breast cancer and medical discrimination. This study used a qualitative phenomenological approach to answer the research questions and utilized the latest version of NVivo to organize and analyze the semi structured interview data. NVivo was used to explore themes and provide textural reflections of qualitative interview data (Saldaña, 2013; Hobaugh, 2019). Interpreting and coding of the interview data followed a rigorous and well-established seven-step process proposed by Moustakas (1994). Themes identified from the data were: (a) physical and emotional scars of breast cancer, (b) the role of faith in the healing process, (c) the village of supporters, and (d) the health care system is not centered around black women. This study shared the profound life lessons the breast cancer survivors learned over the course of their journey from diagnosis through treatment and into their current level of survivorship. Survivors shared the unpredictable impact of breast cancer treatment and the faith used to overcome their illness. Lastly, to avoid the effect of medical discrimination, survivors in the study used advice from their “village of supporters,” which included physicians, church members, family, friends, co-workers and most importantly other survivors, to identify culturally appropriate health care to meet their individual needs.  
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    Influence of health locus of control on physical activity levels and health-related quality of life among Seventh-day Adventist adults
    (12/2/2021) Feiler, Kimberly E; Mann, Mark
    The purpose of this quantitative study was to (a) examine the impact of health locus of control (HLOC: internal, external-chance, external-powerful others, and God/God locus of health control [GLHC]) on physical activity (PA) levels of adults at Seventh-day Adventist institutions of higher education in California, and (b) examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL: physical function and general health) as first related to HLOC, then with PA, in the same population. Subjects included a convenience sample of participants (aged 22-81) employed by or attending one of three SDA higher education institutions in California during the 2020-2021 academic school year, a year that was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants identified their role as either part-time or full-time student, staff, or faculty. Four surveys were combined into one questionnaire for participants to respond to: (1) Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale to measure HLOC, (2) GLHC scale added to MHLC, (3) International Physical Activity Questionnaire to measure PA, and (4) Short Form 36 to measure HRQoL. Multiple regression analyses were performed and results indicated the following. (1) HLOC’s internal category was a significant positive predictor of HRQoL - general health, (2) HLOC’s external-powerful others category was a significant negative predictor of HRQoL - physical functioning, and (3) none of the HLOC categories (internal, external-chance, external-powerful others, God/GLHC) was a significant predictor of PA. In this sample, 66% of the respondents in this study reported high levels of PA (achieving at least 3,000 METS per week), 28% obtained moderate levels of PA (at least 600 METS per week), and 5% obtained low amounts of PA (less than 600 METS per week). Additional stand-out results indicated that part time (PT) staff (as a group) had the most amount of high PA levels, full time students had the highest scores for HLOC’s God/GLHC scale; and PT faculty had the highest scores for HRQoL - general health. Through better understanding of people’s PA, HLOC, and HRQoL, health interventions can be designed and implemented to more appropriately target the desired behavior change and thereby improve people's health and health outcomes.
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    Dare to be aware: Examining stroke risk perception in African American women aged 35-54 in rural Arkansas
    (12/13/2021) Jamerson, Kristy L.; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn
    Stroke is a leading cause of chronic disability, second leading cause of dementia, and fifth leading cause of death in the U.S. Healthy People 2030 established a goal to improve cardiovascular health and reduce deaths from heart disease and stroke by raising awareness of stroke signs and symptoms and decreasing risk factor prevalence. African American women are at higher risk for stroke at a younger age compared to white women, with women in the 35-54 age group having a three-fold increase in stroke risk. Stroke susceptibility is compounded in rural African American women due to higher stroke risk factor prevalence and insufficient access to preventive resources. More research is needed to investigate the rural African American female experience with risk perception of stroke in women aged 35-54. The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the relationship among self-identified stroke risk factors, stroke risk perception, and the likelihood of risk reduction behaviors among African American women aged 35-54 residing in rural Arkansas. All participants (n = 152) in this study completed the Cerebrovascular Attitudes and Beliefs Scale-Revised (CABS-R) self-report survey instrument to assess stroke risk factors and stroke risk perception. The CABS-R data were used to explore whether (a) family history of stroke affects risk perception, (b) there is an association between personal stroke risk factors and risk perception, and (c) whether six-month intention to change risk factors is predictive of perceived threat of stroke. Results of independent samples t-tests indicated that there were no significant differences in perceived stroke susceptibility, perceived benefits of stroke risk factor reduction, and perceived barriers to stroke risk factor reduction between those with and without family histories of stroke. However, notable effect sizes were identified for Perceived Susceptibility to stroke among participants with diabetes (-.47), Perceived Susceptibility to stroke regarding lack of medication adherence (.76), and Perceived Barriers to stroke risk factor reduction regarding lack of medication adherence (-.74). Pearson’s correlation revealed there was no statistically significant relationship between the number of self-identified stroke risk factors and perceived stroke severity (r = .07, p = .421). Further, results of the standard multiple linear regression indicated that the model containing inadequate exercise, overweight, and high blood pressure did not significantly predict perceived stroke severity, F(3, 41) = .07, p = .976, R2 < .01. This study found inconsistencies in the ability to accurately identify personal stroke risk factors and align risk factor prevalence with threat perception among rural African American women aged 35-54. Interventions for decreasing stroke morbidity and mortality from this study should focus on increasing risk factor knowledge, awareness, and accuracy of risk factor identification among rural African American women, particularly those at risk for stroke due to family history, high blood pressure, obesity, and inadequate physical activity.
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    The influence of social support on female exercise self-efficacy in a college health-related fitness course
    (8/2/2021) Warren, Bradley J; Mann, Mark David
    Goals of Healthy Campus 2020 is to improve health across college campuses for students. One of the focuses is to increase physical exercise and avoid weight gain and risks for obesity. During this time of transition, many college students do not partake in regular exercise and females are at lower levels of exercise participation compared to males. College is the last occasion to teach a large population of college students how to establish healthy habits included establishing and maintaining regular exercise. The purpose of this quantitative study was to: (a) examine the role of social support in fostering exercise self-efficacy in college-aged females enrolled in a required health-related fitness course, and (b) assess whether there is a difference in pre- and post-fitness assessments in an intervention group (with additional social support) versus a control group (without additional social support) of college-aged females enrolled in a required health-related fitness course. Data was collected from a sample of females ages 18-24 that were enrolled in a weight training for women course. A 2 (group) by 2 (time) Repeated Measures ANOVA analyzed the data to reveal an increase in exercise self-efficacy level over the course of the semester regardless of group, F(1, 53) = 9.08, p = .004, η 2 = .15. Based on the effect size, it was apparent that the effect was large. There was not a statistically significant interaction between time and group, p = .483, indicating that the groups changed similarly over time. Measuring social support, the results indicated a significant difference in social support from classmates, t(53) = 2.77, p = .008, d = .86, with the intervention group being provided more social support from classmates than the control group. The invention groups with a social support component all had a significant difference (p = <.05) in all measured fitness assessments compared to a control group. This study adds to the gap in the literature for proper curriculum development that will include a specifically designed social support component to instill exercise self-efficacy within female college students. This study did occur during a worldwide pandemic. Future research should replicate the study during a non-pandemic period and include a larger and more diverse sample.
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    Vicarious resilience among employees and volunteers at a rape crisis center
    (7/28/2021) Gallegos, Irene Denise; Amuta, Ann
    Vicarious resilience is a newer concept to combating burnout and improving the health and wellness of sexual assault trauma workers at rape crisis centers (RCCs). The primary goal of the study was to explore the predictive nature of intrapersonal and interpersonal and organizational factors for vicarious resilience among trauma workers at a RCC. A targeted cross-sectional research approach was used to predict the relationship between: 1) intrapersonal factors and vicarious resilience; and 2) interpersonal and organizational factors and vicarious resilience. A quantitative questionnaire was administered to trauma workers at a RCC in North Central Texas (n=46) using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, subscales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire III (COPSOQ III), the Vicarious Resilience Scale, and questions based on recommendations from experts in the field. A descriptive analysis was used to establish the context of trauma worker demographics and work environment. Multiple linear regressions were used to determine whether trauma workers’ intrapersonal, interpersonal, or organizational factors were predictive of high vicarious resilience. The results of the multiple regression analyses indicated statistical significance for intrapersonal factors (total time of service in IPV field, age, and chronic health conditions) and interpersonal and organizational factors (coping strategies) predictive of high vicarious resilience. Findings from this study may be used for RCC management to improve trauma worker wellness and expand trauma-informed training curricula beyond self-care strategies for sexual assault trauma workers. Vicarious resilience is a promising multidimensional approach to adapting to trauma work and transforms trauma workers’ perspectives on a valued field.
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    A light in the flame: Perceived burnout among underrepresented minority physician assistant educators in the United States
    (7/12/2021) Sturges, Daytheon; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn
    There is a keen interest surrounding burnout in academic medicine with an existing need for more studies regarding the subject (Dandar et al., 2019). The priority population for this study were underrepresented minority (URM) physician assistant (PA) educators in the United States. The purpose was to determine external and internal contributors that lead to perceived burnout, as well as to investigate if primary and secondary appraisal inform burnout coping strategies. The study also sought to determine if there was an existing relationship between demographic factors (gender, age, self-identified race, faculty role, and “years in faculty position”) and emotional exhaustion (EE). This study employed a mixed-methods research design using a convenience sample representative of URM PA educators from across the United States (n = 101). For the quantitative portion of the study, the participants completed a demographics survey and the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Educators Survey from which their average EE score was calculated. For the qualitative portion of the study, 11 participants were interviewed to identify burnout perception, burnout contributors, and burnout coping strategies. An independent samples t test, Pearson’s r correlation, multiple linear regression, and one-way analysis of variances were used to determine the relationship between demographic variables and EE. Qualitative data were analyzed by categorizing the findings into codes and organizing the themes into parent nodes. Data analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between gender and EE. This relationship demonstrated that women URM PA educators experience burnout at increased rates compared to men URM PA educators. There were no statistically significant relationships between age (r = .015, R2 = .000225, p = .883), self-identified race (F (1, 98) = .108, p = .744, η2 = .001), faculty role (F (1, 97) = 3.09, p = .082, η2 = .031), and “years in faculty position” and EE (F (1, 99) = .271, p = .604, η2 = .003). The overall predictive model of the demographic variables and EE score was not statistically significant (F(5, 92) = 1.859, p = .109, R2 = .092, adjusted R2 = 0.042). The qualitative data offered insight into burnout perception, contributors, coping strategies, current institutional and programmatic burnout strategies, suggested institutional and programmatic burnout strategies, common occupational stressors, initial responses to occupational stressors, and overall experiences of URM PA educators. Study results yielded insight regarding burnout perception among URM PA educators in the United States. In turn, these findings can be used to inform future health education interventions aimed at preventing burnout among URM PA educators.
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    Assessing the impact of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) on diarrheal disease and malnutrition among children under-five in Chad
    (5/24/2021) Azeez, Olumayowa I.; Menn, Mindy
    Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are pivotal in order to improve health outcomes and overall quality of life. More than 25 diseases are transmitted by poor and inadequate WASH conditions, killing more than two million people each year, including more children than Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis, and malaria combined. Internationally, poor WASH conditions are the primary reasons for diarrheal disease, which result in morbidity and mortality among children under the age of five. Moreover, diarrhea is a major cause of malnutrition and has a cyclical relationship with malnutrition. The burden of disease resulting from poor WASH conditions lies heavily upon sub-Saharan Africa (46% of global DALYs). Chad, a sub-Saharan African country, has the second highest under-five mortality rate in the world at approximately 123.20 deaths per 1000 live births, as well as the highest rate of under-five mortality due to diarrhea (499 deaths per 100,000). The purpose of this study was to use secondary data to assess the relationship between improved versus unimproved household WASH sources and diarrheal disease incidence among children under the age of five in Chad. A parallel purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between improved versus unimproved household WASH sources and the incidence of malnutrition among children under the age of five in Chad. Using nationally representative data from Chad from two time periods (2004-2005 and 2014-2015), the researcher used logistic regression analysis to answer three research questions and test three hypotheses. No evidence was found for effects of the usage of improved household water sources and sanitation facilities on the incidence of diarrhea, both in 2004-2005 and 2014-2015 periods. However, the researcher found that specific types of water sources led to increased incidences of diarrhea in 2014-2015, whereas specific sanitation facility types led to decreased incidences of diarrhea. Also, in 2014-2015, the researcher found that having access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities significantly reduced malnutrition incidence.
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    Exploring wellness programming awareness, usage, and perceived leadership support among community college employees
    (11/20/2020) Swan, Toni A.; Ben-Ezra, Victor
    Unhealthy behaviors that many U.S. workers have adopted, such as physical inactivity, poor diet, and stressful lifestyles, have increased health risks and diminished quality of life. With over 140 million employed people spending close to a quarter of their waking lives at work, the workplace is an opportune setting to support employees and provide avenues for healthier lifestyle choices. However, higher-education, specifically at the community college (CC) level, has seen slow growth of health and wellness programming (HWP). The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) examine community college employees’ awareness, usage, and perceptions of leadership support for HWP, and (2) to explore potential differences across leadership levels, employment roles, and campuses within a college system. Participants in the study (n = 621) completed an employee wellness survey. Results indicated that there was a moderate positive correlation between CC employee awareness and usage (r = 0.62, p < .01), and a weak positive correlation between CC employee awareness and perceptions of leadership support (r = 0.18, p < .01). Results from an ANOVA indicated a statistically significant difference in employee perceptions of leadership support for HWP across three levels of leadership F(2, 1860) = 57.84, p < .001, η2 = 0.06 . Employees felt most supported by their direct supervisor (M = 3.94), followed by their campus administration (M = 3.59), followed by their district administration (M = 3.31). Results also indicated that mean perceptions of leadership support differed significantly across campuses (F(5, 615) = 2.86, p = .015, η2 = .023). Lastly, results indicated that awareness (F(2, 616) = 47.6, p < .001, η2 = .134) and usage of HWP (F(2, 578) = 46.03, p < .001, η2 = .14) different significantly between employment roles. Specifically, faculty awareness (M = 1.96, SD =0.58) differed significantly less from staff (M = 2.33, SD = 0.47) and administration awareness (M = 2.45, SD = 0.35), and also that faculty usage of HWP (M = 0.19, SD = 0.21) differed significantly less from staff (M = 0.35, SD = 0.24) and administration usage of HWP (M = 0.40, SD = 0.22).
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    Exploring family meals, sleep, and media use as predictors of childhood overweight/obese status in Oklahoma: A study from the 2016 national survey of children’s health
    (7/10/2020) Holmes, Ahondju Umadjela; Golman, Mandy
    The alarming and sustained prevalence of childhood overweight/obese status in the United States continues to generate research studies on risk factors and prevention approaches. Despite previous and current public health interventions in the U.S., Oklahoma ranks the 6th worst state in obesity with a third of children between 10 to 17 years being overweight or obese and one in five high school students being obese (Shape Your Future, 2018; The State of Obesity, 2019). In attempts to fill this gap and to inform future public health prevention and management strategies of childhood overweight/obese status, the present study examined the risk factors that significantly predict childhood overweight/obese status within the home environment. Using the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and the Social Ecological Model (SEM) or Ecological Model (EM) as theoretical foundations, the study analyzed a representative subsample of 347 participants from the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) to determine which risk factors (family meals, sleep, and media use) were the most significant at predicting childhood overweight/obese status in Oklahoma. Data analysis included two phases. During the first step, univariate analysis was used to explore each variable and summarize data in a meaningful way. The second step included a bivariate analysis that examined relationships between variables and a determination of which predictor variables were associated with the dependent variable at a statistically significant level (p< .05) for inclusion in the logistic regression analysis. Based on this study’s findings, none of the predictors of interest (family meals, sleep, and media use) was determined to be the significant risk factor in predicting childhood overweight/obese status. This study’s results could indicate either that all predictors equally predict childhood overweight/obese status or that other factors related to the study design affected the results of this study. These findings differ from studies on childhood obesity and they should be carefully considered in light of similar studies.
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    Perceptions of early detection screening for colorectal cancer in African American men and women aged 30-44, using the health belief model
    (8/12/2020) Fields, Chloe; Golman, Mandy
    African Americans (AA) have incidence and mortality rates of 55.2 and 24.5 per 100,000 cases for colorectal cancer (CRC). By 2030, incidence rates for colon and rectal cancers will increase by 90% and 124.2%, respectively, for ages 20-34 and by 27.7% and 46%, respectively, for ages 35-49. To date, studies targeting AA men and women, ages 30-44, about CRC screenings and screening behaviors are scarce as the vast majority of studies on CRC within the AA community are focused on those aged 50 and above. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that influence AA men and women’s participation in early detection screening for CRC, utilizing a Health Belief Model framework. Through the use of a mixed-method convergent parallel design, quantitative and qualitative data collection was employed through an online survey and face-to-face interviews. Analysis was completed by SPSS ordinal logistic regression and NVIVO. Study findings indicated cues to action and perceived susceptibility were predictors of CRC screening; however, overall screening knowledge was low. Additionally, perceived barriers and perceived benefits were consistent with the current screening trends of AA men and women aged 50 and above. Based on the study findings, recommendations include: the creation of age-appropriate health communication campaigns and health interventions, updated CRC evidence-based screening guidelines to include younger adults based on current disease trends, advocacy efforts funding research to assess CRC impact in AA aged 30-44, and streamlined approaches for healthcare providers to discuss CRC screenings with patients younger than the age of 45.
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    The relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and intimate partner violence of minority women and the implications for their health
    (5/27/2020) Rouse, Rebecca A; Golman, Mandy
    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health issue in the United States affecting over 4 million women annually. While IPV cuts across all races and socioeconomic levels, empirical research indicates that minority women are disproportionately affected. Thus far, research has highlighted the significance of individual factors to explain IPV, but there is a notable absence of the role that the neighborhood environment has in influencing the occurrence of IPV. The purpose of this study was to identify potential factors that drive the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV among minority women. Data from the National Crime Victimization Survey 2012-2016 public use file were used to investigate the association of neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Data from the survey were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau and exported to IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24 for analysis. Using multilevel logistic regression, the results of this study revealed that minority women who lived in a gated community or building with restricted access were more likely to have reported experiencing an IPV crime than White only households (aOR = 1.01; aOR = 1.19). In addition, for each unit increase on the neighborhood advantage scale, the odds of IPV increased by 10% (aOR = 1.10). The most prominent policy implications stemming from the study include the need to reduce the prevalence of IPV and to tailor prevention and intervention services within the cultural identity of the neighborhood landscape. Health educators must understand and acknowledge the challenges minority women confront by adapting interventions and providing accessible services in a way that is beneficial to and supports minority women and their families.
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    Sexual minority health: Using the 2016 National Health Interview Survey to evaluate physical activity, behavioral risk factors, and health outcomes
    (3/2/2020) Allen, Jaimi Louise; Wiginton, Kristin
    Due to the historical exclusion of LGB individuals in research, there is a gap in knowledge regarding physical activity (PA) adoption and adherence which prevents public health professionals from creating evidence-based interventions tailored to fit the specific needs and barriers for LGB populations. This is a major public health concern because, until recently, national surveys did not gather information on sexual orientation. LGB individuals face similar barriers as their heterosexual peers; however, specific health disparities affect LGB individuals as a result of discrimination and societal stigma. Positive health benefits of PA spread across physical, psychological, and social dimensions of health. A comprehensive approach is needed to examine the unique experiences of LGB individuals, including the effect of PA on general health status, chronic disease, and psychosocial health (Gorczynski & Brittain, 2016) as well as risk factors associated with those health outcomes (ODPHP, 2014). Due to the scarcity of research on PA and health outcomes based on sexual orientation, this study sought to determine if sexual orientation is a predictive factor of certain health behaviors and outcomes. Utilizing data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey, this research study focused on the following: (1) To evaluate the effect of physical activity on self-reported behavioral risk factors, and health status for LGB participants; and (2) To evaluate the effect of sexual orientation on physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and health status. When looking at the impact of PA on behavioral outcomes, the duration of vigorous PA had a direct, positive relationship with alcohol use. This indicates that as the minutes of vigorous PA increases, alcohol use also increases. PA also had an impact on smoking; as an individual increases their strengthening activities, he or she is less likely to smoke. Additionally, as participants increased the frequency of vigorous PA, their BMI decreased. Results also revealed a direct link between race and PA, indicating Caucasians do not participate in an adequate amount of PA for optimal health benefits. In addition to race, results also showed as participants got older, they were less likely to be active, decreasing the health benefits from PA. These are alarming since results showed as individuals increase their duration of vigorous PA, they were more likely to be in excellent health versus good health. For comparative analysis, 331 heterosexual participants were included in the study. Heterosexual participants lived in all regions of the U.S., but they made more money when compared to LGB participants. Even though the mean averages revealed participants from both sexual orientations to be overweight, LGB individuals had higher BMI when compared to heterosexual counterparts. Additionally, LGB participants were more likely to be current smokers and heterosexuals were more likely to have never smoked. LGB participants were more likely to be heavy drinkers and less likely to report excellent health and participate in the recommended levels of PA. Binge drinking was also more prevalent for LGB participants. The following chapter further discusses the implications of these findings. Comparisons of LGB and heterosexual participants show some differences and similarities with sociodemographic factors. For instance, the average age for heterosexual participants was 41, and slightly younger for LGB participants at 39. Healthy BMI is 18.5-24.9, overweight is 25-29.9, and obese is 30 or greater. The average BMI for LGB (28.0) and heterosexual (27.1) participants were both classified as overweight, but mean LGB participant BMI was higher than their heterosexual counterparts. Additionally, results showed heterosexuals were more likely to have never smoked (62% versus 59%) or be former smokers (24.5% versus 24%), and LGB participants were more likely to be current smokers (17% versus 13%). Heterosexual participants had slightly higher rates of light (57% versus 54.5%) and moderate drinking (35% versus 30.5%), but LGB participants had a much higher prevalence of heavy drinking (15% versus 8.5%). LGB participants were also 6.1% less likely to report excellent health and 0.9% more likely to report fair/poor health. Lastly, heterosexuals were more likely to participate in the recommended amount of PA (11.2% versus 7.5% for LGB participants).
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    Occupational stress and burnout among radiologic science educators
    (2006-05) Killion, Jeffrey B.; Ward, Susan; Bates, Denise; Wiginton, Kristin
    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived level of occupational stress and burnout of radiologic science educators. This was a survey study using a convenience sample. The sample consisted of 241 radiologic science educators. The Maslach Burnout Inventory with health status and demographic survey was emailed to members of the Association of Educators in Radiologic Science. Independent samples t-tests, regression analysis, and one-way ANOVAs were used to compare data. Results indicated radiologic science educators were average in their feelings of emotional exhaustion, low in their feelings of depersonalization, and average in their feelings of personal accomplishment. Also, a statistically significant result was found between all three subscales of the MBI and the reported health status. This research study may help raise awareness of both stress and burnout and the relationship it has to the health of radiologic science educators.
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    A comparison between school district employees with and without chronic health conditions for their health behavior stages of change
    (2000-12) Crosmer, Janie Lynn; Rager, Robin; Doyle, Eva; Ward, Susan
    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences between school district employees with and without chronic health conditions (diagnosis of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight) for their health behavior stages of change for exercise, diet, weight loss, and tobacco use. Research data were collected using a survey questionnaire developed for a worksite wellness program evaluation project funded by the Texas Department of Health. Of the 512 employees who received the survey questionnaire, 255 respondents completed and returned the questionnaires, for a 49.8% response rate. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were performed to determine if significant differences in stages of change for risk factors existed for those with and without chronic health conditions. From the chi-square analyses, statistically significant differences were found for: high-fat food consumption stages of change and weight and/or body fat stages of change between overweight and non-overweight respondents, and weight and/or body fat stages of change between respondents with and without hypertension.