Communication Sciences

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    Parent-led imitation therapy for non-verbal children with suspected autism
    (Zenodo, 2023) Gill, Cynthia; Mehta, Jyutika; Peele, Muchinka; Cherukuri, Maya
    This study examined the results of Imitation Therapy conducted by parents of non-verbal children. Fifty-six parents were taught to engage in a specific form of imitation therapy with their child by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who were familiar with the therapy. The SLPs oversaw the therapy via Zoom conferences and consultation with the parents. Parents who completed the study worked with their child for thirty minutes a day, five days a week, for four weeks. Measures of speech and language production were taken throughout the intervention period to determine progress. The children, ages two to five and a half, made significant increases in the number of different phonemes and the frequency of speech sounds they produced as well as their instances of imitation. Eighty-five percent of them increased their word production. Most of the parents reported that the therapy had been effective in increasing their children’s language and imitation abilities. Children with mild autism symptoms showed more progress than those with severe symptoms. Some of the children who received fewer than the recommended twenty sessions progressed and those who received only two to three sessions did not demonstrate significant changes. Imitation therapy appears to provide an opportunity for parents to assist in children’s development of the sounds and imitative behaviors that are essential to language acquisition. Parent-led imitation therapy may offer an effective alternative when the availability of consistent speech therapy services is limited.
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    Analysis of a vowel database
    (Canadian Acoustical Association, 2008) Assmann, Peter F.; Nearey, Terrance M.; Bharadwaj, Sneha
    The perceptual effects of upward and downward scaling of the formats in combination with changes in geometric mean fundamental frequency was investigated. A database of recordings from adults and children from the Dallas, Texas region was collected. A systematic relationship between the geometric mean of the format frequencies across all of the vowels for a given speaker and the geometric mean fundamental frequency was found. Vowels were recorded in hVd words, both in isolation and in a carrier sentence. Recordings were carried out over a 2.5-year period at the University of Texas at Dallas. Each recorded token was produced following a screen prompt that displayed the orthographic representation of the hVd word or sentence, along with an audio example spoken by an adult female from the Dallas area. It was observed that the geometric mean increases linearly with the geometric mean of the formant frequencies when data for males and females are combined.
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    Speech language pathology consultations and medical outcomes for patients with aspiration pneumonia
    (Al-Kindi Center for Research and Development, 2022) Bolinger, Christopher; Dembowski, James
    A retrospective study of 811 hospital records examined the relationship of SLP consultations for dysphagia to medical outcomes in aspiration pneumonia patients in an acute care setting. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) were consulted on two-thirds of the total aspiration pneumonia patients. Results showed significant differences between patients who received SLP consultations and those who did not in length of stay, mortality, and morbidity. Speech-language pathology was consulted more as pneumonia severity increased. This likely accounted for the relationship between the length of stay and SLP consultations. When SLPs were consulted, more patients were discharged for further rehabilitation. When SLPs were not consulted, more patients expired. More males and geriatric patients were seen than females and non-geriatric adults, respectively. Results may be used to address local hospital policies and protocols and thus increase the quality of care by improving morbidity and mortality outcomes of aspiration pneumonia patients.
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    What’s in your culture? Embracing stability and the new digital age in moving colleges of health professions virtually during the COVID-19 pandemic: An experiential narrative review
    (MDPI, 2022) Poudevigne, Melanie; Armstrong, Erika S.; Mickey, Marisa; Nelson, Michelle A.; Obi, Comfort N.; Scott, Andrew; Thomas, Naquilla; Thompson, Tamara N.
    As traditional education transitioned from face-to-face interactions to virtual learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, faculty and staff in dental hygiene, nursing, and exercise science programs placed students at the center of every educational decision and promoted stability in learning with their commitments to excellence in teaching and the delivery of content using educational and communication technology. This experiential narrative review explains how faculty members and administrators addressed online education with technology specific to health professions and how universities managed to assist students with innovative services for mental health. It also provides an insight into how degree-specific academic personnel embraced technology-based hands-on activities in community health clinics and clinical laboratories, with sustainable and impactful lessons in equity, affordability, and transformative education. Finally, health administrators gather their top-10 leadership recommendations to continue moving forward during the pandemic and present a unique self-reflection on the process of caring considerations required for a successful experience for faculty members, staff, and students.
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    Narrative language development of Persian-English bilingual children attending an immersion preschool
    (The Korean Association of Speech-Language Pathologists, 2021-11-30) Payesteh, Bita; Finestack, Lizbeth
    Purpose: This study aimed to provide a better understanding of the language development of bilingual children who attend a Persian immersion preschool in the United States, with a specific focus on their microstructural language skills derived from a story retell task.opportunities to use their languages, compared to monolingual children. For monolin gual children, their language input and use revolve around one language, the language that tends to be spoken by the majority of people in their environment. One unique subset of multilingual children is those who attend immersion schools. Immersion schools aim to improve children’s language skills by increasing the input and produc tion of a language not spoken by the majority of people in a country. For example, in the United States, this would be a language other than English. Relatively little is known regarding the language skills of children who attend immersion schools, particularly those of very young children whose immersion school is supporting a less commonly taught language, such as Persian (also known as Farsi) in the United States. Thus, the overarching goal of the current study was to better understand the language development of preschool children who attended a Persian immersion school in the United States.
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    Including students who are deaf or hard of hearing: Principles for creating accessible instruction
    (Taylor & Francis, 2019-03-11) Allman, Tamby; Wolters Boser, Samantha; Murphy, Eileen M.
    Effective teaching strategies to modify classroom instruction for students who are deaf or hard of hearing are presented. The authors share principles that guide these instructional strategies and complement current pedagogy. Examples of applying instructional modifications using real classroom scenarios are included under each principle.
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    Sensory processing disorder in children with cochlear implants
    (American Occupational Therapy Association, 2009-03) Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Daniel, Linda L.; Matzke, Patricia L.
    We examined sensory-processing disorder (SPD) in children with cochlear implants and explored the relationship between SPD and duration of hearing loss or duration of cochlear implant use. Caregivers of 30 children completed the Sensory Profile Questionnaire (SPQ). Seventy percent of the children showed “at-risk” or “different” behaviors in one or more of five categories of the SPQ: auditory, visual, vestibular, tactile, and oral processing. No noteworthy relationships surfaced between duration of deafness or duration of cochlear implant use and the atypical behaviors identified. To validate these findings further, postrotary nystagmus (PRN) testing and Miller's Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP) were administered to a subset of children. PRN was atypical in all 6 children tested. MAP findings revealed atypical sensory processing in 4 of the 6 children. Findings suggested that children with cochlear implants may be at risk for SPD. The findings are discussed in light of clinician and teacher referral for occupational therapy evaluations.
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    Effects of auditory feedback on fricatives produced by cochlear-implanted adults and children: Acoustic and perceptual evidence
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2006-02) Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Tobey, Emily A.; Assmann, Peter F.; Katz, William F.
    Acoustic analyses and perception experiments were conducted to determine the effects of brief deprivation of auditory feedback on fricatives produced by cochlear implant users. The words /si/ and /ʃi/ were recorded by four children and four adults with their cochlear implant speech processor turned on or off. In the processor-off condition, word durations increased significantly for a majority of talkers. These increases were greater for children compared to adults, suggesting that children may rely on auditory feedback to a greater extent than adults. Significant differences in spectral measures of /ʃ/ were found between processor-on and processor-off conditions for two of the four children and for one of the four adults. These talkers also demonstrated a larger /s/-/ʃ/ contrast in centroid values compared to the other talkers within their respective groups. This finding may indicate that talkers who produce fine spectral distinctions are able to perceive these distinctions through their implants and to use this feedback to fine tune their speech. Two listening experiments provided evidence that some of the acoustic changes were perceptible to normal-hearing listeners. Taken together, these experiments indicate that for certain cochlear-implant users the brief absence of auditory feedback may lead to perceptible modifications in fricative consonants.
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    EMA compatibility of the Clarion 1.2 cochlear implant system
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2003-06) Katz, William F.; Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Gabbert, Gretchen J.; Tobey, Emily A.
    Three experiments examined whether the Clarion 1.2 S-Series cochlear implant could be safely and effectively used within a Carstens Medizinelektronik EMA (electromagnetic articulography) system. Experiment 1 indicated no measurable effects of EMA magnetic fields on implant function. Experiment 2 showed no influence of the implant on the accuracy of EMA measurements. Experiment 3 found no indication of reduced sentence repetition abilities when EMA fields were present. The results suggest experiments with the Clarion 1.2 cochlear implant and the Carstens AG100 articulograph are safe and feasible.
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    Effects of auditory feedback deprivation length on the vowel ∕ε∕ produced by pediatric cochlear-implant users
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2007) Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Graves, Amanda G.; Bauer, Delia D.; Assmann, Peter F.
    Effects of auditory deprivation on speech production by ten cochlear-implanted children were investigated by turning off the implant for durations ranging from 0.3 to 5.0s and measuring the formant frequencies (F1 and F2) of the vowel ∕ε∕. In five of the ten talkers, F1 and/or F2 shifted when auditory feedback was eliminated. Without feedback, F2 frequency lowered consistently, suggesting vowel centralization. Phonetic transcription indicated that some of these acoustic changes led to perceptible shifts in phonetic quality. The results provide evidence that brief periods of auditory deprivation can produce perceptible changes in vowels produced by some cochlear-implanted children.
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    Working memory, short-term memory and reading proficiency in school-age children with cochlear implants
    (Elsevier, 2015-10) Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Maricle, Denise E.; Green, Lauren; Allman, Tamby
    Objective:The objective of the study was to examine short-term memory and working memory through both visual and auditory tasks in school-age children with cochlear implants. The relationship between the performance on these cognitive skills and reading as well as language outcomes were examined in these children.
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    An exploratory study of visual sequential processing in children with cochlear implants
    (Elsevier, 2016-06) Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Mehta, Jyutika A.
    Objective The objective of the study was to compare visual sequential processing in school-age children with cochlear implants (CIs) and their normal-hearing (NH) peers. Visual sequential processing was examined using both behavioral and an event-related potential (ERP) measures.
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    Educating deaf and hard-of-hearing students during COVID-19: What parents need to know
    (Wolters Kluwer, 2020-08) Kritzer, Karen L.; Smith, Chad E.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has shifted the concept of normal in the United States: education became homebound, social interactions moved behind the protection of digital screens and masks, the general population became non-essential workers as U.S. states went into lockdown, and regular activities were substantially modified to be conducted with physical distancing. To learn more about the changing education of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children during the pandemic, researchers at Kent State University and Texas Women's University recently conducted a national survey involving 133 parents of DHH children. Based on the survey results, here are five recommendations that parents should know about educating DHH children during this new normal.
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    Designing a future classroom laboratory for exploring the science of teaching and learning
    (Association for Educational Communications & Technology / Indiana University Bloomington, 2020-07-28) Colton, Sarah; Smith, Chad; Sourdot, Ludovic
    The Texas Woman’s University Future Classroom Laboratory (TWUFCL) is a unique learning space designed for use by university faculty, future teachers, and local PreK-12 teachers and students. Part of the European Schoolnet’s Network of Future Classroom Labs, the TWUFCL offers users the chance to explore the science of teaching and learning in a technology-rich environment containing a multitude of individual approaches and applications that are available to teachers throughout the U.S. Centered around the Four C’s of 21st Century Learning: communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and creativity. This unique learning space allows future teachers to explore technology and applications available in schools prior to student teaching. The space allows faculty to incorporate practical, interactive teaching experiences into coursework. Local K-12 teachers and students can use the innovative environment to explore ideas and applications they can take back to their own classrooms and use with students across the curriculum. The collaborative design approach to this evolving educational laboratory for training teachers and students included stakeholders from throughout the university and community in its state-of-the-art design described within.
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    Creating a YouTube channel to equip parents and teachers of students who are deaf
    (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2020) Smith, Chad; Colton, Sarah
    Due to the social distancing requirements in response to the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, K-12 students moved to online education. Because of the limited online teaching resources accessible to Deaf/Hard of Hearing (DHH) students, the authors have developed a YouTube channel that focuses on providing instructional videos that present different educational activities in a way that can be easily accessed by DHH students, their parents, and their teachers. Signed and captioned instructional videos for parents and teachers to use with DHH students were assigned as projects for two of the author’s courses. By creating meaningful online content as a part of coursework, teacher candidates gained the experience of creating a practical product to be used for K-12 students and teachers. The learning opportunities created by teacher candidates includes online technology resources for teachers, content-area activities for K-12 students, and fun activities to help build parent-child communication skills. The authors hope to continue to create educational online content that is accessible to DHH students beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.
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    Pneumonia: Does age or gender relate to the presence of an SLP dysphagia consultation?
    (MDPI, 2020-09-14) Bolinger, Christopher; Dembowski, James; Mory, Kimberly
    A retrospective study of 1489 hospital records examined the relationship of speech-language pathologist (SLP) consults for dysphagia to age and gender in pneumonia patients from an acute care setting. Age and gender disparities exist in healthcare. The research sought to determine if disparities existed in the presence/absence of SLP dysphagia consults related to age and gender. Results suggested SLPs were consulted on a greater percentage of geriatric patients overall; however, there were differences in the number of consults for each pneumonia type. More males and geriatric patients were seen than females and non-geriatric adults, respectively. Results may be used to address local hospital policies and protocols and thus increase quality of care by improving morbidity and mortality outcomes of geriatric patients with pneumonia.
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    Comparing videofluoroscopy and endoscopy to assess swallowing in bottle-fed young infants in the neonatal intensive care unit
    (Springer Nature, 2019-07) Armstrong, Erika S.; Reynolds, Jenny; Carroll, Sandra; Sturdivant, Chrysty; Suterwala, Mustafa S.
    Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of videofluoroscopy (VFSS) and endoscopy (FEES) in detecting laryngeal penetration and tracheal aspiration in bottle-fed young infants in the NICU. Study design VFSS and FEES findings of 22 infants were compared to each other and to a composite reference standard in this prospective study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for each assessment. Result Agreement between VFSS and FEES was high (92%) for aspiration and moderate (56%) for penetration, with FEES detecting more instances of penetration. Compared to the composite reference standard, FEES had greater sensitivity and a higher negative predictive value for penetration than VFSS. Because of the low prevalence of aspiration, diagnostic accuracy could not be determined for aspiration for either assessment. Conclusion FEES appears to be more accurate in detecting penetration in this population, and both assessments are valuable tools in a comprehensive feeding and swallowing evaluation.
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    Using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing to detect laryngeal penetration and aspiration in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit
    (Springer Nature, 2017-01) Suterwala, Mustafa S.; Reynolds, Jenny; Sturdivant, Chrysty; Armstrong, Erika S.
    Objective: To evaluate the safety of fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and the reliability of both FEES and a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) in identifying laryngeal penetration and tracheal aspiration in infants under 3 months old in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).