ItemDean's Address and Announcement of Symposium Winners(2022)Dr. Holly Hansen-Thomas, Dean of the Graduate School at TWU, welcomes presenters and attendees and announces this year's winners. ItemExploring Valuable Lessons of 3D Printing in Education(2022) Collinsworth, Amy; Youngjin LeeTechnology has a valuable place in today’s educational world. Technology can be used by children and adults to can provide a positive impact on the learning experience. 3D printing is a technology that can transform a virtual object into a physical model that students can touch. The use of the technology can help student attention during class activities and promote student understanding of difficult concepts. Although 3D printing has been around since the 1980s, it was primarily used in certain fields such as marketing, manufacturing, aerospace, and architecture. As advances in technology have emerged, 3D printing has increased in availability into other areas including education. The increase of affordable 3D printers and variety of materials currently available offer educators a chance to bring this technology in to the lesson plan. 3D printing can stimulate student engagement, promote retention of complex concepts and encourage creative thinking. 3D printed models can provide powerful teaching aids because of their remarkable detail and accuracy (Preece, Williams, Lam, & Weller, 2013). This technology also allows for creative teaching with tactile objects by providing hands-on learning. Giving students a tactile structure was found to improve learning interaction and retention (Fernandez- Sanchez & Millan, 2013). Teachers could use printed models to demonstrate information that could be easily interpreted by students. Due to advancements in technology, there are many types of 3D printers available capable of producing a wide variety of models (Garcia, Yang, Mongrain, Leask, & Lachapelle, 2018). This gives educators freedom to create objects they feel might actually be helpful in learning. More schools and hospitals can invest in 3D printers due to advances in hardware, software, printing materials, and lower cost in printers. This literature review was performed in order to locate useful articles on the topic of using of 3D printing in education. ItemEntanglements in Learning: Sensemaking and Building Relationships in Classrooms through Storytelling(2022) Silva, Supuni Dhameera; Danielle KeifertThe need for building relationships of trust between students and between students and teachers, and practices that position students and teachers as full people in ways that honor their prior experiences is always present. Such approaches and practices are particularly necessary when teachers have different lived experiences than their students (Henfield & Washington, 2012; Ladson-Billings, 2005). Classrooms, as a nexus for lines of experience from all the individuals (Keifert, 2015, under review)—both teachers and students, learning together, provide opportunities to understand the need to reflect on their own histories and learn about other’s histories to better understand the role of intersectionality in shaping experiences within US K-12 schools. A critical first step in the preparation of teachers along multiple intersectionalities requires supporting teacher candidates (TCs) to engage in critical reflection on their own and other’s learning experiences to (re)imagine what their own pedagogical approach might accomplish for their future students (Zeichner, 1996). As words carry compressed histories and suggest potential futures, we seek to understand those histories and imagined futures that learners make relevant through the stories they tell in classrooms. This approach demands that these stories serve as sensemaking resources for the individual telling the story as well as those listening to the story, though an analytical lens—Entanglements which are the moments in interactions when participants make relevant, and therefore intertwine, their lines of experience. TCs were asked to reflect on their past learning experiences and imagined future teaching approaches through disciplinary ideas presented in the course—they did a face-to-face sharing of a non-traditional representation of self (a representation of themselves using any form other than an essay) drawing on stage-theorists (Piaget, Erickson, Marcia, Kohlberg), followed by a whole class discussion. Through these artifacts, TCs told stories about themselves related to stage theories using all kinds of practices, including but not limited to poems, drawings, songs, and built an understanding of one another that allowed them to recognize both vulnerability and strength. Personal stories may have a particular impact on TCs developing an understanding of how relationships are central to teaching / learning practice, thus we propose that the differences between entangling personal stories (past and present) with disciplinary ideas is most important as a matter of scaffolding TCs towards supporting them to engage in power-explicit conversations about intersectionality in past and future teaching and learning experiences leading towards building strong relationships with students in their future classrooms. ItemExamining the Roles of Goal, Task, and Bond in Therapeutic Alliance Ruptures(2022) Dimmick, Andrew; Callahan, JenniferStrong support has been given for the importance of the therapeutic alliance and repairing therapeutic alliance ruptures in psychotherapy. The cause driving therapeutic alliance ruptures has yet to be fully explored. The aim of this study was to analyze the three facets of therapeutic alliance—goal, task, and bond—and their association with therapeutic alliance ruptures. We also investigated the presence and frequency of alliance ruptures as predictors of treatment outcomes. To accomplish this, we analyzed clinical records (N = 221) from clients in a training clinic who had previously received psychotherapy services. We found that a disagreement of the goals and tasks of treatment were both more likely to result in an alliance rupture than a deterioration of the relational bond. Furthermore, we found that the frequency of therapeutic alliance ruptures accounted for a significant amount of variability in treatment outcomes, with more ruptures being associated with poorer outcomes. These results highlight the importance of identifying when a rupture has occurred while underscoring that not all ruptures are equal. The implications of these findings are discussed. ItemExact Solutions for Non-Linear Partial Differential Equations Using Vector Sub Spaces(2022) Bevara, Ravi Varma Kumar; Stephen WheelerThe study of nonlinear differential equations has been handicapped due to the absence of well-defined analytic techniques to deal with them in general and deriving their exact solution. The main aim of this research is to investigate the recently developed analytic method namely Invariant Subspace Method towards deriving exact solutions of certain physically important nonlinear partial differential and differential-difference equations of both integer and fractional order. Differential equations play a prominent role in many disciplines including engineering, physics, economics, and biology. Almost all physical phenomena obey mathematical laws that can be formulated by differential equations. Exact solutions play a vital role in the proper understanding of qualitative features of the concerned phenomena and processes in various areas of science and engineering. Nonlinear differential equations play a crucial role in many branches of applied physical sciences such as condensed matter physics, biophysics, atomic chains, molecular crystals, and discretization in solid-state and quantum physics. They also play an important role in numerical simulation of soliton dynamics in high-energy physics because of their rich structures. Not only these we may encounter so many problems which may involve differential equations. So, in order to find exact solutions to those problems we have to find new methods effectively. One of those analytic technique in solving the non-linear differential equations. ItemNo Strings Attached: Utilizing No-Code Tools to Improve Medication Reconciliation Skills Development, Clinical Workflow, and Patient Outcomes(2022) Perkins, Jasmine; Jo-Ann StankusIn the United States, thousands of deaths occur annually related to medication errors. In addition, medication errors can cause physiological, psychological, and financial harm. However, medication errors can be prevented with the right resources and processes. One way to stop medication errors is by implementing a medication reconciliation process. This project aims to support medication reconciliation skills development, improve clinical workflow and patient outcomes. This project will explore a healthcare facility’s medication reconciliation process and utilize the systems development life cycle (SDLC) model; Analysis, Design, Implementation, Testing, Evaluation, interact design principles, and no-code application tools to recommend system changes. Application usability, clinician satisfaction, and improved care continuity will be targets of successful implementation. ItemQuantitative Sensory Property Variation of Texture, Taste, and Aroma for 268 F3 Cucumber Progenies(2022) Akinpelu, Oyindamola; Du, XiaofenCucumber (Cucumis sativus) is the third most cultivated vegetable crop in the world, after tomato and onion. Cucumber texture, taste and aroma make up the fruit’s key sensory qualities. The sensory qualities determine consumer acceptance, which directly impacts cucumber’s commercial value. This study aimed to investigate the texture, taste, and aroma variation in 268 F3 cucumber progenies from the same parents (WI-7801 and WI-7633). Cucumber firmness, which is directly linked to crunchiness, was measured by a texture analyzer using a shear blade probe. Firmness values within the F3 family ranged between 13.24-56.87N, with an average firmness of 28.65N. For the taste components, total sugars measured by a refractometer ranged between 1.20-6.40 with an average value of 3.79Brix. The pH, measured by a calibrated pH meter ranged between 5.13-7.07 with an average pH of 6.04. Titratable acidity, measured by Titrando machine, ranged between 0.103-0.329% with an average value of 0.207%. In addition, bitterness was estimated by total phenolic content measurement using the Folic-Ciocalteau method. Values ranged between 2.32-27.81 mg/100g GAE, with an average value of 11.62 mg/100g GAE. Furthermore, volatile aroma was analyzed by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (SPME-GC-MS). The aroma intensity estimated by the peak area showed variation as high as 6.3. 5.3 and 3.6 times for the three most dominant odor active compounds- hexenal, E-2 nonenal and (E, Z)-2,6 nonadienal respectively. All measurements exhibited a normal distribution of values. This study provides insight about variations in qualities that contribute to sensory qualities of cucumbers and has the potential to contribute to the knowledge required to achieve specific fruit qualities in cucumber breeding programs. ItemDoes Human Cytomegalovirus Promote Treatment-Resistant Breast Cancer?(2022) Garcia, Erica; Spencer, JulietBreast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. There are many known risk factors for breast cancer, but one area merits further research is virus infection. Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects over half of adults by the age of 40, and recent evidence suggests that HCMV may be linked to cancer progression. A previous study found high levels of HCMV proteins in breast tumor biopsies correlated with low levels of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR). To determine if HCMV impacts ER protein levels, we infected two breast cancer cell lines with HCMV. The results show that ERα and PR levels were greatly reduced in the presence of HCMV compared to mock- infected cells. We are investigating the mechanistic basis for this observation, but If HCMV triggers a reduction in hormone receptors in breast cancer cells, then patients may benefit from the addition of antiviral medications to treatment regimens. ItemUsing a Mixed Methods Approach to Develop and Validate the Dietary Protein Assessment Questionnaire (DPAQ) for Assessing College Students' Attitudes Towards Dietary Protein(2022) Gutjahr, Parker; Warren, Cynthia; Miketinas, DerekMisconceptions about protein consumption may exist due to unscientific dietary information, such as the Internet and social media platforms, as well as lack of nutrition knowledge. The Dietary Protein Assessment Questionnaire (DPAQ) was developed to examine college students’ knowledge and attitudes towards dietary protein. The attitude questions were evaluated for construct validity using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The knowledge questions were assessed for construct validity by comparing mean scores between nutrition and non-nutrition students using an independent t-test. Preliminary evidence of construct validity for the attitude and knowledge questions indicated that the DPAQ can be used among the college student population. The EFA indicated that attitudes towards protein appear multidimensional and correlated. Three experts in nutrition, including researchers with knowledge of survey development, reviewed the DPAQ for content validity. Face validity was assessed by conducting cognitive interviews with nutrition and non-nutrition students. Three problem areas were identified from the analyses of the cognitive interviews: 1) variable interpretation of terms; 2) confusing/complex wording; and 3) limited answer choices. In addition to these problem areas, one question was added. The remaining steps of the DPAQ validation process include reassessing construct validity of the knowledge and attitude questions, and examining internal and temporal reliability. Once validated, the DPAQ can be used to create effective interventions for improving the nutrition knowledge and, ultimately, health, of college students. ItemExploring Practical and Potential Application of the Digital Storytelling Tool and Game, Twine and Elegy for a Dead World in Multimodal English Composition Class Setting(2022) Won, Daehyun; Dundee LackeyThe scenery of English rhetoric and composition teaching always changes according to the developments of composition technologies, such as the inventions of the press machine and the typewriter, and the change has been drastically promoted with the advent of digital technology and its multimodal texts. In the ongoing digital revolution, English rhetoric and composition teachers are required to exactly understand their own as well as their students’ identities to help students confront academic challenges critically and creatively. The current college students can be named as digital natives who use digitally created multimodal texts as the same as their native languages or willingly access the new digital technology and texts without hesitation. On the contrary, many teachers in the English discipline can be named as digital immigrants who are in the digital-multimodal-texts-as-a-second- language status - being more familiar with traditional texts - with struggling to teach the new way of composing multimodal texts, which are only available through the fluent level of digital tools. Therefore, for the aim to suggest an eclectic way for digital native students and digital immigrant teachers, as the hybrid between digital-multimodal texts’ active interactivity and traditional texts-based composition, the pedagogical utilization of digitally created but textuality- based interactive narrative would be one of the actualizable solutions. In that sense, the innovative digital storytelling (i.e., interactive narrative) composition tool, Twine, and the creative digital storytelling adventure game, Elegy for a Dead World, can effectively be used to teach students to improve their multimodal composition skills and literacy through non-linear narrative writing (from Twine) and creative thinking from visualized free writing (from Elegy for a Dead World), to assist them to communicate with the digital world. ItemMusic-Based and Language-Based Literacies in Spanish-English Emergent Bi/Multilingual First Graders: Music Aptitude, Phonological Awareness, and Morphological Awareness(2022) Lozada, Victor; Annette Torres EliasThe purpose of this study is to understand the relationships among music aptitude, phonological awareness in Spanish and English, and morphological awareness in Spanish and English in first grade, Spanish-English emergent bi/multilingual children in a mid-sized suburban public school in Texas. A sequential explanatory mixed methodology was employed in which the quantitative portion used a correlational design with a critical quantitative approach while the qualitative portion used semi- structured interviews as writing conferences alongside writing samples to explain the quantitative data, employing a critical mixed method. Quantitative data indicated statistically significant relationships between (1) music aptitude and phonological awareness in Spanish, (2) phonological awareness in Spanish and phonological awareness in English, (3) phonological awareness in English and morphological awareness in English, and (4) phonological awareness in Spanish and morphological awareness in English. Qualitative data indicated the following themes that arose from the data: (1) music at home: passive listening, (2) music at home: active music making, (3) connecting sound to text: in writing, (4) connecting sound to text: in speech, (5) the presence of translanguaging, and (6) the absence of translanguaging. The qualitative data explained the relationships found in the quantitative data. Implications for music education, bi/multilingual education, early literacy indicators, and assessment. Recommendations for policy, practice, and research including (1) the need to fund early childhood music and bi/multilingual education, (2) the importance of using the arts in bi/multilingual education, (3) the need for quick, valid, and reliable assessment tools for research and practitioner purposes, and (4) the need for researchers to translate critical methodologies to the positivist epistemologies of policymakers so that they can create a better world for minoritized populations. ItemBridging the Divide: The Examination of Two Presidential Era's Police Striking Approval(2022) Leal, Noe; James L. WilliamsSocial factors influence people's perceptions toward police brutality (also known as police striking approval), leading researchers to examine society's perspectives on police action. This study examines the impact of political affiliation and political ideology upon the approval of police striking citizens between the Obama and Trump administration eras. Data on 3103 U.S. adults from the 2016-2018 General Social Survey (GSS) was utilized. Binary logistic regression was used to investigate the above-mentioned relationship and determine differences between U.S. presidencies. The main findings of this study are that party affiliation, political ideology, and presidential eras influence the approval of police striking citizens. Other significant findings in this study were that women were less likely to approve of police striking citizens than males, Whites were more likely to approve of police striking citizens, and Protestants were more likely to approve of police striking citizens. The study found that the approval of police striking citizens does vary between presidential eras as social factors can influence society to approve police brutalities. The significance of this research is to expand the limited literature on two presidential eras and their influences on reducing the rates of police brutalities since it has become an epidemic in the U.S. The U.S. is notorious for systematic racism that discriminates, alienates, and marginalizes anyone who is not part of the White heteronormative and patriarchal structure. Thus, the goal is to expand the literature and field to view how presidential eras may influence such police brutalities and allow society to become desensitized and normalize the abuse. ItemAn Investigation of the Experiences of Students with Mental Health Disorders in Secondary Music Ensembles(2022) Walls, Jess; Vicki BakerThe purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of current teaching practices in middle school and high school music ensembles to support students with mental health disorders. Participants (N=168) ranged in age from 18-64 and were symptomatic of depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder while enrolled in a music ensemble classroom for at least one year during their secondary education. Participants completed a survey that included questions regarding their experiences dealing with mental health in an ensemble classroom, coping with feelings of suicide, and the type of support they received from their ensemble director. Results indicated a 48.2% rate of suicidal thoughts among participants. The most meaningful types of support from ensemble directors included creating a welcoming classroom atmosphere without excessive competition and treating students with compassion. Data from this study can provide music ensemble directors with valuable tools for addressing their student's mental health issues. ItemThe Influence of the Principalship on Principals: A Qualitative Study to Explore the Influence of the Principalship on Aspiring Administrators(2022) McAlester, AngelaThe principal of a school is the driving force for instructional success as well as academic propelling of students. The leadership the principal provides infiltrates the walls of the school, as well as elevates the staff members to produce their best effort and professional growth. This qualitative research project aims to explore the influence the principalship has on aspiring administrators as they work alongside colleagues. Hoping to delve in closely, this study will highlight the specific areas that draw leaders to higher pursuits of professional growth. The data for this study was collected through interviews, questionnaires, and observations on the job. Other themes surrounding this area of study are centered around the influence, both positive and negative, that are noted by the administrators as they work to assist the principal day-in and day-out. These findings are significant as we trudge forward to promote healthy leadership and a strong pull toward educational success for our schools. ItemNeural Network - LSTM Model for Multivariate Time Series Data Prediction(2022) Chowdhury, Megdam; Shahnewaz, Tahsin; Nikolay M. SirakovTime series forecasting is considered as a dark horse in the field of data science. It is the most critical factor that determines whether the changes in one factor will cause rise or fall in the system environment. Multivariate time series forecasting is an important machine-learning problem where the data involves a mixture of long and short-term pattern, which can selectively record and discard relevant information from the data. Traditional approaches may fail in this process due to time delay and gradient disappearance. In this study, we applied Neural Network- LSTM model to convert a Multivariate time series data into a date time format and used two LSTM layers for sequential analysis of multidimensional data. We validated our neural network using multi attribute stock price historical data for prediction. We used Keras and TensorFlow deep learning library in a Python environment and run our data through the LSTM model to predict the opening prices of 90 days in the future. ItemPreparing the Vulnerable "Offender:" Reverse Crisis Intervention Training for People with ASD and/or I/DD to Prepare for Police Encounters(2022) Roming, Sinjin; Bratina, Michele P.; Schwab, Britta S.; Carrero, Kelly M.Contact with police begins early for many citizens with ASD and/or I/DD, especially those with co-morbid mental health concerns. However, in order to help these individuals prepare for police interactions, parents, caregivers, and professionals feel inadequately prepared to help those they work with and care for to prepare them for these encounters. The current study examined the current ways, if any, that family members, caregivers, and professionals are using to prepare those they work with for police interactions. Additionally, their perceived levels of knowledge and confidence as part of this preparation was explored. Teachers, caregivers, family members, and other professionals completed a survey asking about these different factors of working with those with exceptionalities and helping them prepare for police interactions. Results of survey data on the types of strategies taught to people with ASD and/or I/DD demonstrated an overall lack of reported preparation, knowledgeability, and confidence in terms of helping those with exceptionalities prepare for police encounters. These results demonstrate the need for greater efforts to help those working with exceptionalities to help those they have charge over to be ready to interact with police. Future directions in the field of research and recommendations are given. ItemA Comparative Analysis of Year One and Year Two Usage of a Data Management Program as an Assessment Tool(2022) Katubiya, Gladys; Soeder, Alison; Stewart, Tracy; Dan SuA significant part of university programs is the institution's responsibility to influence its students' values, skills, and attitudes through departmental goals, objectives, and priorities. For Texas A&M University-Commerce, these objectives are updated and managed in digital assessment management platform. This study intends to analyse the differences in user feedback from the first year of campus implementation to the second year use of the assessment software. The data gathered from software evaluations will demonstrate changes in the number of respondents, the number of satisfied users, the number of dissatisfied users, software strengths and weaknesses. The study uses qualitative and quantitative feedback, and descriptive statistics and t-tests are applied to compare the two years of data to identify trends and make recommendations. Participants included Institutional Effectiveness (IE) Authors and individuals involved in the IE review process who completed and submitted the IE Fall Feedback Survey. The study assessed Likert scale questions and open-ended questions addressing the experiences in the use of the assessment software and also measured users’ satisfaction with the platform's features and training resources. Results are evaluated by calculating percentage distribution and frequency. The study shows a decrease in total respondents between 2020 and 2021. In 2021, more than 80% of the respondents were satisfied with the communication and information about the year’s IE cycle. These results were similar to the results documented in 2020. In both years, respondents found the platform productive and well-structured. More respondents in 2021 noted dissatisfaction with some of the software’s features compared to 2020. The results guide the Institutional Effectiveness and Research department in providing recommendations on how best to use the assessment software as well as bringing attention to assessment obstacles and ensuring efficient monitoring of student learning outcomes and assessment data. ItemAutomated Profiling-Based Zero-Day Malware Detection(2022) Kim, Chiho; Sang-Yoon Chang; Jonghyun Kim; Dongeun Lee; Jinoh Kim(Motivation) The impact of malware attacks has been getting more significant, targeting critical infrastructures as well as commodity computing devices. A body of studies has been carried out for detecting malware with its devastating impacts, but they are often limited to known malware attacks due to the nature of the signature-based and supervised machine learning approaches. (Semi-supervised approach) Semi-supervised learning would be an option, but our preliminary studies suggest two limitations: (i) one class (OC) classifiers can be limited with low detection rates, and (ii) the profiling-based approach (using an autoencoder) often needs an “ideal” threshold setting. (Proposed method) We tackle these challenges by incorporating the concepts of autoencoding and OC classification, to benefit from strong abstractions by autoencoder but to remove the necessity of the complex threshold selection using an OC classifier. (Evaluation) Our experimental results with a recent malware dataset (Meraz’18) show comparable performance to the supervised learning methods, yielding up to 96% accuracy. The proposed method also shows resilience to adversarial attacks, yielding better performance for identifying evading samples than supervised learning methods. ItemSister Outsider: Lived Experiences of Black Women Early Childhood Educators Who Employ Culturally Relevant Pedagogy(2022) Green, Meghan; Sherri ColbyThe lack of current research on the lived experiences of Black women early childhood educators who utilize culturally relevant pedagogy with young children has rendered this group of educators functionally invisible. Using the theoretical frameworks of critical race theory, Black feminist thought, and intersectionality, the purpose of this critical narrative inquiry study was to examine how Black women early childhood educators’ lived experiences inform their use of culturally relevant pedagogies in pre-k to third grade classrooms. This study took place at an elementary public charter school serving students in pre-kindergarten to third grade in the southeast sector of Fort Worth, Texas. The participants were five Black women early childhood educators who teach children in pre-kindergarten to third grade. I employed narrative inquiry methods. Data were collected through individual semi structured interviews, sister circle collective gatherings, Photovoice, and researcher produced life notes. I also analyzed the data collected using Polkinghorne’s narrative mode of analysis to produce life story narratives. Findings from my co-researchers’ stories demonstrated how they (re)membered their culturally situated work with young children and families, (re)imagined how the authentic lives of BIPOC children are reflected in early learning spaces, and (re)cognized the inherent power of cultivating the genius of BIPOC minds. Each woman navigated the intersections of her identity to build meaningful relationships with young children and families. They also created learning environments that centered reciprocal authenticity with children. Lastly, my co-researchers all held an image of children of as wholly competent and capable beings. Implications for early childhood educators, administrators, educational researchers, and teacher educators are offered along with recommendations for future research.