The growth-suppressive effects of farnesol, γ-tocotrienol, genistein, lovastatin and pomegranate extracts individually and in combinations on human prostate tumor cells




Bravo, Lou

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Epidemiological studies indicate that a plant-based diet is associated with reduced cancer risk. The purpose of this research was to study the anti-tumor effects of farnesol, γ-tocotrienol, genistein, pomegranate extracts W (fermented pomegranate juice) and P (pomegranate peel) and the drug lovastatin on the proliferation of human DU145 and LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells and PC-3 prostate adenocarcinoma cells. These study agents except lovastatin are readily available in fruits and vegetables.

Farnesol, γ-tocotrienol, genistein, W, P and lovastatin individually induced a dose-dependent suppression of the proliferation of human DU145 and PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells. Farnesol and genistein also induced a dose-dependent suppression of the proliferation of human LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells. Two-agent blends of genistein and γ-tocotrienol, lovastatin and γ-tocotrienol, and extracts W and P suppressed the growth of DU145 cells to a greater extent than the sum of their individual actions, suggesting synergy. Lovastatin at 16 μM inhibited DU145 cell growth by 18%. A two-agent blend of 4 μM lovastatin (4% growth inhibition) and 5 μM γ-tocotrienol (15% growth inhibition) inhibited cell growth by 54%, which is greater than the sum (19%) of their individual inhibitions and three times the growth inhibition (18%) achieved with 16 μM of lovastatin. A three-agent blend of genistein, γ-tocotrienol and lovastatin inhibited PC-3 cells by 83% while the sum of their individual actions totaled a 59% inhibition, again suggesting synergy in their interactions. The concentration (1.5 μM) of the lovastatin in the three-agent blend was half the concentration (3 μM) of lovastatin that individually inhibited the growth of the PC-3 cells by a lesser 75%. Genistein and γ-tocotrienol acting synergistically with lovastatin may lower the drug's effective dose thereby attenuating its associated toxicity. Lowering the effective dose of lovastatin while enhancing its chemotherapeutic potential presents a unique and innovative application to cancer chemotherapy. Additional research is needed to determine how the compounds of this study will affect the normal human prostate cells.



Health and environmental sciences, Pure sciences, Biological sciences, Farnesol, Genistein, Lovastatin, Pomegranate, Prostate tumor, Tocotrienol-gamma