Aroma and flavor profile of raw and roasted Agaricus bisporus mushrooms using a panel trained with aroma chemicals
Agaricus bisporus is the most commonly consumed edible mushroom in the US, but research on its sensory properties is limited. This study characterized aroma and flavor of three raw and roasted A. bisporus mushrooms (white, crimini, and portobello) using quantitative descriptive analysis. Sixteen sensory attributes were chosen and included definitions and reference standards prepared with chemical solutions representing aromas perceived in the samples. All three raw A. bisporus possessed key sensory characters of mushroom, earthy, hay, soybean, potato, and woody aroma and flavors. Raw portobello and crimini had significantly higher (p < 0.05) flavor intensities in mushroom, earthy, dark meat, woody, and cabbage flavors, umami and bitterness taste, than white. When roasted, sensory profiles significantly (p < 0.05) shifted to dark meat, roasted, and fried notes, and portobello showed the highest intensity in dark meat flavor. Conversely, hay, woody, and earthy notes decreased in all roasted mushrooms. The results contribute to the growing body of research on mushroom sensory properties and potential use in savory products. The reference solutions could be adopted by other researchers or industry peers for A. bisporus sensory evaluation.