Effects of singing on speech patterns of children with expressive language delays
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of singing sounds on the expressive speech patterns of children with language impairments. The design was a multiple baseline across three behaviors with replication across three subjects. Participating, ages 3-5, were chosen in consultation with the speech therapist who also served as the secondary observer. Data for baseline and follow-up were taken by videotaping the participants in the classroom before and after each music therapy session. Data were gathered in the same manner for the intervention phase while also videotaping the intervention activity in the music therapy session. Songs were implemented during intervention that focused on the sounds /M/, /P/, and /B/. Data were graphed using frequency recording and reliability was calculated using the formula for point-by-point agreement. Two students demonstrated significant upward trends during intervention for all behaviors both in the classroom environment and in the music therapy session. One student showed a decrease during intervention, but increased during follow-up. Most behaviors did not occur in baseline, but all were occurring during follow-up with the exception of one student who was absent. This study does show a change in behaviors for all participants.