Department of Management & Marketing

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    The dynamic labor force: Findings from the 2009 annual meeting of the Southern Management Association
    (Emerald, 2010) Lambert, Jason
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the highlights of research on gender and diversity that was presented at the recent 2009 annual meeting of the Southern Management Association in Asheville, North Carolina.
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    HR practices, customer-focused outcomes, and OCBO: The POS-engagement mediation chain
    (Springer, 2020) Gavino, Monica C.; Lambert, Jason R.; Elgayeva, Ekaterina; Akinlade, Ekundayo
    The mechanisms through which HR practices impact employee-level and organizational-level outcomes continue to intrigue HR academicians and practitioners. More recently, within the context of human resource management (HRM), there is interest in understanding the role of engagement as a predictor of employee outcomes. More widely studied, is the mediating effect of perceived organizational support (POS) on the investment organizations make in their HR practices and outcomes such as turnover intentions, in-role and extra-role behaviors, and performance. This study provides additional insight into the relationship between individual HR practices and customer-focused outcomes and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBO) through two interdependent mechanisms: the POS-engagement chain. Data were collected from a municipality in the Southwest region of the U.S.A. The results indicate the POS-engagement mediation chain occurs between training, pay for performance, selection, promotional opportunities and decision making and the outcomes of customer experience, customer commitment, and OCBO. Our study has contributed to debates concerning whether POS or engagement is an underlying mechanism relating HR practices and important outcomes that benefit the organization. By developing and testing a model that integrates both POS and engagement as a mediating chain linking HR practices to customer- focused outcomes and OCBO, we hope that that further investigations of the impact that HR practices have on outcomes such as customer-focused outcomes and OCBO, utilize the POS-engagement mediation chain as a key mechanism through which organizational outcomes occur.
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    Building trans-disciplinary sustainability studies into the college curriculum
    (Common Ground Research Networks, 2013) Robb, Jeffrey; Rylander, David; Maguire, Cynthia
    While some universities, such as Arizona State and the University of Michigan, have large-scale interdisciplinary sustainability programs with major funding (Fogg 2006, George 2007), few have incorporated team teaching across disciplines and applied service projects at the undergraduate level with minimal resources. Processes, challenges and implications will be presented for discussion. The Texas Woman’s University “Science, Society and Sustainability” certificate begins with a gateway course team taught by science, business, and law instructors; requires building block courses from a variety of disciplines; and culminates in a capstone course with an applied service learning project. Goals for the program include: (1) to prepare students for jobs in different disciplines that require understanding of sustainability principles, (2) to allow students to use critical thinking and applied learning in a multidisciplinary way, and (3) to implement local, student-led sustainability initiatives. The program integrates the principles and values of sustainable practices into all aspects of education and learning so students have the necessary skills to address emerging social, economic, legal, cultural and environmental problems. In a trans-disciplinary world with multi-dimensional challenges such as sustainability, higher education institutions must re-think their approach to education, including more integrative, cross-discipline learning experiences (Conceicao et al. 2010). This type of innovation also lends itself to Quality Enhancement Plan initiatives (e.g., service learning, critical thinking, research or communication skills). Potential learning outcomes can apply to faculty as well as students. Challenges can include faculty buy-in and training, infrastructure impediments to team teaching, functional territorialism and lack of support from administration and the community. Yet with successful implementation, this type of program can add value for students and bring distinction to the university.
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    College students and credit card companies: Implications of attitudes
    (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016) Singh, Shweta; Rylander, David; Mims, Tina C.
    More knowledge and understanding is needed regarding the mechanisms influencing college student attitudes toward credit card companies and the behavior that students exhibit using credit cards. Prior literature in the area has been sparse. The current article is an attempt to fill the gap in existing literature. Using survey data, we try to find the determinants of college student attitude toward credit card companies and the responsible use of credit cards. Our findings indicate that a strong positive link exists between student attitude toward credit card companies and responsible credit behavior. Two distinct groups of students are identified – one with a positive attitude toward credit card companies and positive credit use behaviors; the other with the opposing attitude and behavior. Reward cards, payment behavior, number of credit cards, modes of acquisition, awareness about credit card policies, purpose for using credit cards, impulsiveness and certain student characteristics are all indicated as variables that help discriminate between the two different student groups. Our findings have implications for both higher education institutions and credit card firms.
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    Salesforce socialization revisited: A search for salient constructs
    (Northern Illinois University, 2014) Sager, Jeffrey K.; Dubinksy, Alan J.; Lee, Sanghyun; Wilson, Phillip H.; Shao, Chris; Rylander, David H.
    In light of increased competition and escalated importance of maintaining and extending relationships between businesses, salespeople's ability to represent an organization effectively is more important than ever. Socialization is often an overlooked vehicle for instilling in salespeople organizational values and behaviors necessary to represent an organization effectively. To enhance understanding of various aspects of socialization, this article reports the results of a study that examines three major models of socialization as predictors of key salesperson outcomes. Findings suggest that a combination of variables from the stages, tactical, and content socialization models best predict organizational commitment, job satisfaction, performance, and intention to quit. Congruence, organizational values and goals, and initiation to task were among the more salient predictors or outcomes. The need to explore a reassessment of socialization constructs and refinement of measures is highlighted, as well as implications fir sales managers.
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    Improving the odds: Combining Six Sigma and online market research for better customer service
    (Society for Advancement of Management, 2006) Rylander, David H.; Provost, Tina
    The conventional methods of gauging customer satisfaction aren't good enough any more. By the time a paper survey alerts a company of customer satisfaction problems, that customer is probably history. Technology, especially online market research tailored to each customer, should be harnessed to provide customer feedback to the front-line employees fast and accurately. Better yet, melding online technology with the principles of Six Sigma - a customer-focused, quality-improvement initiative should enable organizations to make rapid decisions based on accurate information. Two case studies show how this process can work.
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    Efficiency of online vs. offline learning: A comparison of inputs and outcomes
    (Center for Promoting Ideas (CPI), USA, 2012) Singh, Shweta; Rylander, David; Mims, Tina C.
    As the trend toward online education intensifies, questions remain regarding the overall efficiency of online courses versus their in-class counterparts. The current paper seeks to estimate the efficiency of students who take online courses relative to the efficiency of students who are enrolled in offline courses. Efficiency outcomes are defined in terms of (1) quantitative scores achieved by the student at the end of the course, (2) the student’s viewpoint of how much they learned in the course and (3) the student’s level of satisfaction with the course. The authors use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate a model of student efficiency. Demographics, student experience and student preferences are examined as differentiating attributes. The sample is taken from a course offered both online and in a traditional classroom setting, with both formats being taught by the same instructor in a single semester. Implications include a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses in efficiency of different course formats.
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    Preventing brand name blunders in doing business across cultures: Theory and research
    (Taylor & Francis, 2020) Pan, David W.; Pan, Alan J.; Mutlu, Berna; Rylander, David
    This paper contributes to international business literature by integrating firms’ product competition, consumers’ brand congruence, and contextual enculturation into one framework of analysis. The authors propose and empirically demonstrate how the effectiveness of international branding strategy can be scaled by ethnolinguistic (in)consistency (EL(i)C). The study compares domestic vs. foreign brand assessments on the connection of product-brand fit and brand relevance congruence with their respective ethnolinguistic context in two dissimilar cultures in Asia. The findings offer practical implications for international business managerial actions. This study provides evidence that brand value starts from a firm’s offering, is co-created through consumers’ congruence process, and is enhanced by enculturation conformance or diminished by non-conformance within a given context of market culture. The empirical evidence of this study supports our proposition that the “enculturation determinant logic” per context be integrated with “competitive advantage” logic of firms and “service dominant logic” of market.
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    The role of microplastics in business: Perception and actions
    (Association of Collegiate Marketing Educators (ACME), 2020) Rylander, David
    Humans have produced over eight billion tons of plastic, and an estimated 14 million tons of plastic enter our oceans each year (Woodward 2019). Businesses and consumers are largely aware of the pollution problems from plastic, but they are just recently learning more about the danger of microplastics. Microplastics are particles of plastic .5 – 5 mm in length and have been found in everything from water to air to animals and human excrement. Microplastics are used in all types of products, including cosmetics and clothing, and they are also generated from regular plastic packaging and products (Stephenson 2018). Studies have examined attitudes and behaviors regarding plastic bags (Ari and Yilmaz 2017) and impact of reusable bags on purchase behavior (Karmarkar and Bollinger 2015), but there is little or no research on business actions and consumer attitudes toward microplastics. Several businesses are trying to reduce plastic use, and some are even addressing the microplastic problem, but awareness is low in comparison to other environmental hazards (Ahlstrȍm 2018). This is a significant topic due to so many packaging and product components containing microplastics or capable of producing microplastics (Pontes and Nemeshanyi 2019). As consumers become more concerned about pollution and health, microplastic management could be a high-impact way for businesses to improve their environmental sustainability and appeal to the desires of consumers. Manufacturers are also becoming more liable for end-of-life management/disposal through extended producer responsibility actions (Turaga et al. 2019). Given the paucity of knowledge about microplastics and their potential effects (Stephenson 2018), this research study seeks to discover consumer awareness and attitudes regarding microplastics, along with possible business responses to reduce microplastic waste and develop messages to appeal to consumers. Research questions include: (1) What are consumers’ levels of awareness and responses to microplastic issues? (2) How are businesses responding to the growing problem of microplastic waste? (3) What actions and messages regarding microplastics will appeal to consumers? The first research question will be addressed with a survey of consumers to detect levels of awareness of microplastics, where microplastics can be found, and harmful effects of microplastics. This part of the study will be an exploratory look using scale items borrowed from similar research on consumer attitudes and behaviors toward environmental issues (e.g., Arli et al. 2017; Pawaskar et al. 2018; Robinot and Giannelloni 2009; Vasiljevic-Shikaleska et al. 2018). The second research question will be addressed with a case-based look at companies that are actively attacking the problem (e.g., SC Johnson), including their actions to reduce microplastics and their messaging to consumers. This will include some alternative solutions to reducing microplastics (e.g., Foschi and Bonoli 2019; Nguyen and Billen 2017; Paletta et al. 2019). The third research question will be addressed with the previously mentioned survey of consumers. Consumers will be asked to react to various actions and messages from businesses. Findings from this exploratory study will offer evidence of consumer awareness and attitudes toward microplastics, and businesses will have some better ideas for how to address microplastic problems in their supply chains and how to communicate most effectively to consumers about microplastics.
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    Theology and corporate environmental responsibility: A biblical literalism approach to creation care
    (Christian Business Faculty Association, 2018-07-09) Brown, Lee; Spence, Mark
    In this paper, we use theological development to help understand why biblical literalists, particularly those American evangelicals who believe in a literal interpretation of the Bible, are less likely to engage in Corporate Environmental Responsibility (CER) than other religious people. The hermeneutic we employ is a historical-grammatical method of exegesis to show that biblical literalists should actually care more for the environment than non-biblical literalist due to the creation care mandate found in Genesis 1. While religion has been studied in organizations, the research often focuses on outcomes of religion in the workplace or on firm level outcomes in the aggregate. We offer individual theology as a possible causal mechanism behind the influence that religion has on individuals and organizations. Theological beliefs influence individual behaviors, and understanding this process has implications for organizations. We discuss generalizability to those of differing faiths and non-religious individuals. We also discuss implications of increased creation care through CER for organizations.
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    From the classroom to the boardroom: Team development interventions by faculty in student teams
    (NeilsonJournals Publishing, 2021) Horn, Dewaynna; Flanagan, Jennifer; Young, Margaret A.
    Teamwork is a part of not only the classroom but also the workplace, and team development and team learning are key components to team success. A student’s meaningful team experience in the classroom informs their ability to later succeed in team environments in a professional setting. This study examines student perceptions of faculty efforts to develop teams and how they impact team cohesion, team interdependence, team conflict, and ultimately team satisfaction. The researchers also analyzed psychological safety as a moderator of team development and offer several tips for instructors to facilitate student teamwork in classrooms.
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    The hashtag heard round the world: How #MeToo did what laws did not
    (The hashtag heard round the world: How #MeToo did what laws did not, 2019-08-26) Leopold, Joy; Lambert, Jason R.; Ogunyomi, Ifeyemika O.; Bell, Myrtle P.
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that #MeToo is a social movement which has been more effective in changing norms around and increasing understanding about the prevalence and destructiveness of sexual harassment than decades of laws and organizational policies have been.
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    Immigrant stereotypes and differential screening
    (Emerald, 2019-11-13) Lambert, Jason R.; Akinlade, Ekundayo Y.
    Purpose: There has been an increasing number of allegations of discrimination toward US employees and anecdotal indications of immigrant employee exploitation in the information technology sector. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if applicants’ work visa status causes native-born applicants to be treated differentially (less favorably) than foreign-born applicants.
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    The impact of gay-friendly recruitment statements and due process employment on a firm’s attractiveness as an employer
    (Emerald, 2015-08-17) Lambert, Jason R.
    Purpose: Using early recruitment and workplace diversity literature, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how employee recruitment statements regarding employment-at-will moderate the effect that gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT)-supportive recruitment statements have on job seekers’ job pursuit intentions (JPI) and attraction toward a firm.
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    Do we feel safer today? The impact of smiling customer service on airline safety perception post 9–11
    (Springer, 2016-01-23) Hunter, Joyce A.; Lambert, Jason R.
    The 9–11 attacks in 2001 were the most notorious airline safety breaches to ever occur in airline history. This attack stunned America’s airline industry and government, causing both to realize how ill equipped they were to deal with the terrorist attacks that impacted New York and Washington, D.C. This tragedy triggered psychological, social, economic, and political implications that propelled various reform strategies. Responding swiftly to the 9–11 tragedy, the government created the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), which implemented more invasive security procedures. As a result, some travelers are less attracted to flight travel. This paper explores whether safety procedures actually make individuals feel safer. Furthermore, smiling customer service ameliorates the negative attitude that some have towards airline safety. Responses from more than 100 travelers reveal their opinions on current safety in the skies. Results indicate that smiling customer service mitigates safety perceptions about airline travel for research participants, and younger travelers feel safer than older travelers.
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    Coming to America: Work visas, international diversity, and organizational attractiveness among highly skilled Asian immigrants
    (Taylor & Francis, 2017-04-28) Lambert, Jason R.; Basuil, Dynah A.; Bell, Myrtle P.; Marquardt, Dennis J.
    U.S. firms are increasingly seeking foreign workers to help satisfy growing demands for technical and highly skilled labor, and many immigrants continue to seek jobs in America. Despite this, few studies in the management discipline examine immigration issues as they relate to organizational attraction and recruitment. In an experimental study, we investigated the relationship between stated recruitment policies, perceived work-related expectancy, and organizational attractiveness among graduate students from Asia as potential job seekers to companies in the United States. We found a relationship between perceived work-related expectancy and either emphasizing international diversity or work visa sponsorship. However, emphasizing work visa sponsorship weakened the effect of international diversity on perceived work-related expectancy. Perceived work-related expectancy was also found to positively affect organizational attractiveness, resulting in a conditional indirect effect of international diversity statements on organizational attractiveness. Implications for organizations and directions for future research are discussed.
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    Cultural diversity as a mechanism for innovation: Workplace diversity and the absorptive capacity framework
    (Allied Business Academy, 2016) Lambert, Jason
    Although prior research demonstrates a relationship between organizational diversity and firm performance, there lacks detailed explanation describing how and why organizational diversity impacts firm performance. This limited understanding of the diversity “black box” may explain why prior research has produced mixed results concerning the relationship between diversity and either group or firm outcomes. Culturally diverse firms experience improved performance when an innovation strategy is in place, and group diversity has been linked to creativity in prior research. This may mean that diversity-creativity linkages are variables responsible for firm performance outcomes. However, there is scant attention paid to how individual- and group- levels of creativity and innovation within the firm result in firm-level innovation. The author of this article explores how firms that value diversity become innovative through their ability to harness creativity and transform it into useful ideas, products, and services. Multi-level creativity is described by the author, and using the diversity perspectives and absorptive capacity framework, the paper discusses how diversity and the manner in which it is managed creates an environment ripe for firm-level innovation to flourish.
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    Mechanisms for hiring discrimination of immigrant applicants in the United States
    (2020) Lambert, Jason; Akinlade, Ekundayo Y.; Zhang, Peng
    Purpose: Few studies examine how hiring discrimination can be an antecedent to the labor exploitation of immigrant workers. The main purpose of this paper is to advance the theoretical understanding of how the intersectionality of race and immigrant status affects differential hiring treatment, and how it affects job offers, job acceptance and hiring decision outcomes for immigrant job seekers.
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    Diversity in Organization
    (OpenStax, 2019) Lambert, Jason; Leopold, Joy
    After reading this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions: What is diversity? How diverse is the workforce? How does diversity impact companies and the workforce? What is workplace discrimination, and how does it affect different social identity groups? What key theories help managers understand the benefits and challenges of managing the diverse workforce? How can managers reap benefits from diversity and mitigate its challenges? What can organizations do to ensure applicants, employees, and customers from all backgrounds are valued?