Parental warmth and affection as a protective factor against adolescent risky behavior


December 2023

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Families all around the world strive for the child to become independent as they approach adulthood. The present research investigated the specific protective factor of affection on a range adolescent risky behaviors. In particular, adolescence is a time in a child’s development in which many parents lean on more limits, in order to minimize the opportunity for risky behaviors and negative outcomes. Parents who negatively reveal their stress during communication with their adolescent(s), increasingly mirror negative patterns of communication. Respectful support creates an environment where warmth and affection are welcomed and celebrated. Parenting trends change. Practitioners can focus on qualities and characteristics that families can autonomously incorporate those into parenting patterns, instead of confining parents to prescriptive methods that may not fit each family’s culture or norms. Past research has focused on early interactions, parenting behaviors during the childhood years, and targeted adolescent behaviors. More research is needed on specific parent behaviors and protective factors that lead to positive adolescent adjustment, specifically lower risky behavior levels. A series of negative binomial generalized linear mixed models were conducted in order to determine the interaction outcomes of the moderating variables M on variable Y and X (M, moderating variables: age, marital status, and stress level; X, independent variables: perceived parental warmth and affection; Y, dependent variable: adolescent risky behavior).



Adolescent risky behaviors, parental warmth and affection, mother's marital status, father's marital status, mother's work stress, father's work stress, mother's age, father's age, protective factors