Effect of three coaching techniques on the shot put release point and distance of throw for male athletes with intellectual disabilities

Mughrabi, Hisham
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of three coaching techniques on shot put performance of 9 male athletes with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities (ID). The three coaching techniques were: (a) picture with verbal (PV), (b) demonstration with verbal (DV), and (c) physical assistance with verbal (PAV). An alternating treatment design with baseline, intervention, and maintenance phases was used (Homer, et al., 2005). Observational analysis was used to report level, trend, and latency of change. A two-way (release point and distance thrown x baseline and maintenance) repeated measure ANOVA (p ≤ .05) addressed pre/post data. Following three sessions baseline phase, the intervention phase was initiated which involved six sessions of each treatment which were randomly selected (3 days per week for 6 weeks) and a three sessions maintenance phase followed 2 weeks later. Positive change in the shot put release point and distance thrown was analyzed by level (i.e., last data point in baseline to the first data point in intervention), trend (i.e., direction of change), and latency of change (i.e., quickness of performance change) using the PV and DV techniques. Similar profiles of change did not occur with the PAV technique as determined by observational analysis. A significant difference was identified between the baseline and maintenance phases for shot put release point (F (1, 8) = 25.13, p < .05) and distance thrown F (1. 8) - 6.54, p < .05. Based on the limitations of this study, coaches of athletes with ID should consider the use of additional visual coaching techniques beyond demonstration. Additional techniques to include the use of a picture proved affective for athletes with mild through moderate ID within this study.

Health and environmental sciences, Biological sciences, Coaching, Intellectual disabilities, Male athletes, Release point, Shot put, Throw distance