Racial/ethnic differences in HIV testing: An application of the health services utilization model




Lo, Celia C.
Runnels, Ratonia C.
Cheng, Tyrone C.

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This study applying the health services utilization model examined the importance of predisposing, enabling, and need variables to the social mechanisms explaining lifetime HIV testing across racial/ethnic groups. Data for the study were derived from the National Health Interview Survey (collected 2013–2014), our final sample numbering 18,574 adults. Four subsamples reflected race/ethnicity: 13,347 Whites, 2267 Blacks, 2074 Hispanics, and 886 Asians. Logistic regression established respondent odds of ever having received HIV testing. Further statistical testing evaluated race/ethnicity’s potential moderating role in HIV testing. The findings generally support a role for Aday’s predisposing, enabling, and need factors in explaining HIV testing. Across the four subsamples, female gender, older age, and sexual minority status consistently increased lifetime HIV testing. However, we found racial/ethnic differences in HIV testing’s associations with these factors and others. Our study made a beginning in the effort to specify mechanisms leading to HIV testing—and reliable diagnosis—among four racial/ethnic groups. Understanding these mechanisms might multiply opportunities to raise testing rates for all, in turn reducing racial/ ethnic disparities in HIV treatment.


Article originally published in SAGE Open Medicine, 6, 205031211878341. English. Published online 2018. https://doi.org/10.1177/2050312118783414


HIV, Race/ethnicity, Health services utilization model, Sexual minority


This is the published version of an article that is available at https://doi.org/10.1177/2050312118783414. Recommended citation: Lo, C. C., Runnels, R. C., & Cheng, T. C. (2018). Racial/ethnic differences in HIV testing: An application of the Health Services Utilization Model. SAGE Open Medicine, 6, 205031211878341. This item has been deposited in accordance with publisher copyright and licensing terms and with the author’s permission.