Process used by African-American women to negotiate condom use: A grounded theory study




Hunter, Teressa

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



African-American women between the ages of 25 and 34 years are disproportionally affected by HIV/AIDS. Current prevention techniques, including education, have not had a significant influence on decreasing the rates of HIV and increasing safer sexual practices among African-American women. More research is needed to identify effective prevention strategies that will decrease the rising rates of HIV among African-American women.

The process African-American women use to negotiate condom use with their sexual partner was explored. A purposive sample of 12 unmarried, heterosexual, African-American women between the ages 25–34 years were recruited for this study. The women were recruited from the Oklahoma City metropolitan area by mainly using the snowball effect. The data was analyzed using open coding, axial coding and selected coding with constant comparison used as an ongoing process.

The feeling and emotions were identified as: 1) communication skills, 2) self-ownership, 3) unfamiliarity with female condoms, and 4) education about female condoms. The substantive theory developed from this study is the Theory of Open Communication and Self-Worth. This theory can be used as a guide for teaching the women to 1) be assertive and effective in the discussion process, 2) put themselves first in relationships, and 3) become more familiar with female condoms, which can empower the female. The dynamics and the process of how African-American women negotiate condom use in sexual relationships is a crucial aspect for HIV prevention.



Health and environmental sciences, Social sciences, African-American women, Communication skills, Condom use, HIV prevention, Self-ownership