Effect of consuming fortified breakfast cereal on vitamin E and calcium status




Killough, Jill

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Vitamin E and calcium are two shortfall nutrients that are required in optimal amounts from the diet to perform necessary functions in the body. Fortified breakfast cereal can provide up to 100 % of the daily value for several vitamins and minerals, including vitamin E and calcium. This study investigated the consumption of a 1-ounce serving of fortified breakfast cereal on vitamin E and calcium dietary intake among adults, using a six-week randomized, controlled, parallel-arm, open-label design, with a two-week pre-intervention period and a four-week post-intervention period. In addition, serum tocopherol and lipid-corrected tocopherol concentrations were evaluated. Forty-three participants enrolled in the study with forty-two participants (10=males; 32=females) completing the study. Participants were in self-reported good health; 18 years of age and older; and not currently taking a vitamin-mineral supplement, lipid altering medication, or hormone replacement therapy. Participants were randomized to either the control or intervention group, which received fortified breakfast cereal. Participants recorded six-weeks (two non-consecutive week days and one weekend day per week) of dietary intake and had two blood draws (pre- and post-intervention). Dietary intakes were analyzed using the Nutrient Data System for Research version 2010. Mean compliance for fortified breakfast cereal consumption in the intervention group was 100% for men and ranged from 95.6 to 97.3% for women. There were significant between-group differences in total vitamin E (α-tocopherol), synthetic vitamin E (all-rac-α-tocopherol), and calcium intakes at weeks 3 & 4 and at weeks 5 & 6 (p<.001). Additionally, total vitamin E (α-tocopherol), synthetic vitamin E (all-rac-α-tocopherol), and calcium intakes were all significantly higher at weeks 3 & 4 and weeks 5 & 6 as compared to weeks 1 & 2 in the intervention group (p<.001). There were no significant between-group differences for either serum alpha-tocopherol or lipid-corrected alpha-tocopherol concentrations. There were no between-group differences in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, or HDL-C concentrations. Fortified breakfast cereal can be easily incorporated into a normal diet among healthy adults and is a feasible option for increasing dietary intakes for two shortfall nutrients in the United States.



Health and environmental sciences, Calcium intake, Fortified cereal, Tocopherol, Vitamin E