The effect of whole red raspberry juice on body composition, physical activity, and serum inflammation biomarkers in postmenopausal osteopenic women
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of red raspberry juice on body composition, inflammatory biomarkers, and physical activity in postmenopausal women with mild-to-moderate bone loss. A total of 57 women were recruited and randomized into two groups for a period of 6 months (180 days). The treatment group (n= 30) consumed 2 oz of red raspberry concentrate daily (reconstituted with 10 oz water). The placebo group (n = 27) served as the control and consumed 2 ounces of a placebo mixture equivalent to the red raspberry juice concentrate in appearance, energy, and sugar content (fructose and dextrose) devoid of red raspberries. Body composition was evaluated via DXA scans performed at baseline and final (180 days). Blood was obtained and self-reported physical activity questionnaires were completed at baseline, midpoint (90 days), and final visits. At the end of the 6 month study, there was a small reduction albeit not significant in visceral adipose tissue volume, visceral adipose tissue mass, android fat, gynoid fat, android to gynoid ratio, and total body fat observed in both raspberry and placebo groups. Serum leptin levels were higher in the placebo group compared to the raspberry group at the end of the study. There were no significant changes in recreational activity patterns for walking, moderate, and vigorous physical activity for either the raspberry or placebo group. The study findings suggest that inclusion of red raspberry in the diet of postmenopausal women may have a positive effect on body composition that may lead to reductions in inflammation and decrease disease risk.