The Civil War in North Central Texas: Its impact on frontier families, 1860-1874
The Civil War was experienced differently by north central Texas frontier families in Clay, Collin, Cooke, Denton, Fannin, Grayson, Jack, Montague, Palo Pinto, Parker, Wise and Young counties. In 1860, many viewed these remote frontier counties as a refuge from the impending violence and there was considerable sympathy for the Union cause. Later, however, Union sentiment was displaced by a growing support for the Confederate war effort and the imperative to provide local common defenses against hostile Indian attacks. Frontier living was exacerbated by a general lack of governmental security, poor communications, manpower shortages, geographical isolation and an almost total privation of basic human necessities. Despite the development of the buffalo and cattle industries in the postwar years, indifference by federal officials resulted in violent frontier conditions until 1874, slowed economic recovery and created lasting social consequences well into the twentieth century.