The relationship between body mass index and sleep in women with risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus




Acosta Reyes, Pamela
Immanuel, Jincy
Hague, William M.
Teede, Helena
Hibbert, Emily
Nolan, Christopher J.
Peek, Michael J.
Wong, Vincent
Flack, Jeffrey R.
McLean, Mark

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Background: Both obesity and sleep disorders are common among women during pregnancy. Although prior research has identified a relationship between obesity and sleep disorders, those findings are from women later in pregnancy.

Objective: To explore the relationships between self-reported sleep duration, insufficient sleep and snoring with body mass index (BMI) among multiethnic women at risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)in early pregnancy.

Methods: Cross-sectional study of baseline data from women at risk of GDM enrolled in the Treatment of BOoking Gestational diabetes Mellitus (TOBOGM) multicentre trial across 12 Australian/Austrian sites. Participants completed a questionnaire before 20 weeks’ gestation to evaluate sleep. BMI <25 kg/m2 served as the reference group in multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Among the 2865 women included, the prevalence of overweight and obesity classes I-III was 28%, 19%, 11% and 12%, respectively. There was no relationship between sleep duration and BMI. The risk of insufficient sleep >5 days/month was higher in class II and class III obesity (1.38 (1.03–1.85) and 1.34 (1.01–1.80), respectively), and the risk of snoring increased as BMI increased (1.59 (1.25–2.02), 2.68 (2.07–3.48), 4.35 (3.21–5.88) to 4.96 (3.65–6.74), respectively)).

Conclusions: Obesity is associated with insufficient sleep among pregnant women at risk of GDM. Snoring is more prevalent with increasing BMI.


Article originally published in Obesity Science & Practice, 1-8. English. Published online 2023.


GDM, Obesity, Pregnancy, Sleep, Snore


This is the published version of an article that is available at: Recommended citation: Reyes, P. A., Immanuel, J., Hague, W. M., Teede, H., Hibbert, E., Nolan, C. J., Peek, M. J., Wong, V., Flack, J. R., McLean, M., Dalal, R., Harreiter, J., Kautzky–Willer, A., Rajagopal, R., Sweeting, A., Ross, G. P., Cheung, N. W., & Simmons, D. (2023). The relationship between body mass index and sleep in women with risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. Obesity Science & Practice, 1-8. This item has been deposited in accordance with publisher copyright and licensing terms and with the author’s permission.