Videotaped modeling and maternal influences on perceived maternal self-efficacy
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if providing mothers of infants with minor health problems the opportunity to view the videotape, "Yes, Mom, You Can Be Successful," significantly increases perceived maternal self-efficacy. Through two important sources of efficacy information from Bandura's social cognitive theory, verbal persuasion and modeling, the videotape was developed to orient mothers to childcare and feeding methods to use while their infants receive treatments for possible infections. In addition, specific maternal factors (the mother's perception of her infant; time after delivery when mother first saw, held, and fed her infant; number of other living children; age; length of labor; and perceived social support) affecting self-efficacy were also investigated. Sixty subjects were recruited from mothers who delivered their infants at one university hospital in the southwestern United States. Instruments were the Maternal Confidence Questionnaire, Broussard and Hartner's Neonatal Perception Inventories, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, the Social Provisions Scale, and Maternal and Infant Demographic Forms. The dependent variable, perceived maternal self-efficacy, was analyzed using analysis of variance for repeated measures. Being in the experimental group did not result in significantly higher maternal self-efficacy scores. Stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived social support accounted for approximately 13% of the variance of the dependent variable, perceived maternal self-efficacy. The other maternal variables were not significant in the multiple regression equation.
Although the experimental condition did not represent an effective approach to increasing perceived maternal self-efficacy, study findings indicated an increase in maternal self-efficacy scores from the mothers in both the experimental and control groups. Therefore, the implications for this study included incorporation of nursing interventions into the mothers' plans of care to increase perceived maternal self-efficacy. Since perceived social support explained a significant amount of variance in the dependent variable, mothers at risk for not receiving adequate support need to be identified and referred to support groups and services. Additionally, the positive role of family support in promoting and sustaining perceived maternal self-efficacy should be recognized and used in planning nursing interventions.