The effect of whole red raspberry juice on bone density and biomarkers of bone in postmenopausal osteopenic women
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of red raspberry juice on bone mineral density and bone biomarkers in postmenopausal women with mild-to-moderate bone loss. A total of 57 women were recruited and randomized into two groups for a period of 6 months (180 days). The treatment group (n= 30) consumed 2 oz of red raspberry concentrate daily (reconstituted with 10 oz water). The placebo group (n = 27) served as the control and consumed 2 ounces of a placebo mixture equivalent to the red raspberry juice concentrate in appearance, energy, and sugar content (fructose and dextrose) devoid of red raspberries. DXA scans were performed at baseline and final (180 days) visits to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD). Serum and urinary samples were collected at baseline, midpoint (90 days) and final visits to assess changes in bone markers. At the end of the 6 month study, total BMD had decreased in the control group, but was maintained or slightly improved in the treatment group. Biomarkers of bone formation were maintained in the treatment group and decreased in the placebo group. Additionally, biomarkers of bone resorption were decreased in the treatment group and remained unchanged in the placebo. The findings of this study indicate that regular consumption of red raspberry may have a positive impact on bone health by inhibiting or protecting bone against resorption, and therefore, positively influences osteoporosis disease risk.