Intention to teach physically active adapted physical education classes to children and youth
The purposes of the present investigation were: (a) to examine whether adapted physical educators' intentions of teaching moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at least 50% of their class time with students with disabilities were determined by attitude toward, subjective norms of, perceived behavioral control, based on the theory of planned behavior; and (b) to determine cognitive foundation of the intentions of adapted physical educators. The participants were 122 purposely selected adapted physical educators primarily from California, Texas, and New York. A modified version of the Physical Educators' Intention Toward Teaching Individuals With Disabilities-II (PEITID-II; Rizzo, So, & Tripp, 2007) questionnaire was used to assess adapted physical educators' intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and control beliefs. A path analysis and Pearson correlation analyses were performed to analyze the data using SPSS 19.0. Based on the results, the adapted physical educators' intentions were significantly affected by their attitudes, subjective norms (i.e., social expectation), and perceived behavioral control (i.e., confidence) with the positive relationships. Based on the cognitive foundation of the intentions, the adapted physical educators who believed in positive consequences were likely to intend to teach MVPA at least 50% of their class time with students with disabilities. Further, administrators, parents/guardians, and medical personnel were significant individuals that the adapted physical educators felt to need to meet their expectations of teaching MVPA. On the other hands, the students' physical and cognitive limitations were considered a barrier to the adapted physical educators when teaching MVPA. Within the limitations of the study, the conclusions were drawn that the findings in the present study supported the theory of planned behavior was applicable to provide insight into the relationships of attitudes, social expectation, and a sense of control with the intentions of adapted physical educators to teach MVPA at least 50% of their time. More importantly, their strong intentions at least met the national recommendation of physical education (i.e., minimum 50% of class time should be moderate to vigorous to students in their physical education) according to Healthy People 2020 (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2010).