The relationship between personal control and co-dependency in Adult Children of Alcoholics




Snow, Diane

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Using a correlational design, a convenience sample of 101 ACoAs attending 12-step programs, and Bepko and Krestan's systemic model of the alcoholic family (1985), study-specific reliability and construct validity of the Snow Personal Control Inventory (SPCI) and the Friel Co-dependency Assessment Inventory (FCAI); the relationship between personal control and co-dependency in Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACoAs); and a causal model of personal control, were studied. Alcoholic family members included 70% fathers, 32% mothers, 25% spouses, 41% brothers, and 20% sisters. High levels of stress were reported in 42% with family stress; 39% with personal stress, and 88% with family of origin stress. High rates of cross-addictions were reported.

Alpha coefficients were.92 and.94 for 33 item Likert (A) and 37-item semantic differential (B) scales of the SPCI;.92 for the FCAI;.95 for the FCAI-2 (with Family of Origin Dysfunction (DFOOS) scale removed); and.71 for the DFOOS. Convergent validity of SPCI was.63 for A;.65 for B using the Perceived Loss of Control Scale. A 3-factor solution using varimax rotation for the SPCI (Part A) following a scree test accounted for 48.2% of the variance. Factors included: (1) Initiative/Perceived Control in Option Awareness; (2) Self-Expectation in Relationships; and (3) Time/Task Management. Four factors in B accounted for 57.6% of variance: (1) Satisfaction in Personal Development; (2) Centered and Secure; (3) Self-Perceived Capability for Performance; and (4) Accountability. Alpha coefficients of the revised subscales ranged from.76 to.88 for A scale and.82 to.90 for B scale.

Factor analysis for the FCAI, using varimax rotation and scree test for number of factors, revealed 4 factors accounting for 39.7% of variance: (1) Dissatisfaction With Self and Relationships; (2) Lack of Self-Worth in External Referenting; (3) Lack of Self-Care in Dependency; and (4) Family of Origin Dysfunction.

Personal control correlated with co-dependency (A scale: r = $-$72, p <.01; B scale: r = .66, p <.01). Path analysis of a model of personal control resulted in family of origin dysfunction, co-dependency, and personal stress having inverse direct effects with 76% of variance accounted for.



Developmental psychology, Psychology, Families and family life, Personal relationships, Sociology, Children and youth, Alcoholism