The association of depressive symptoms and C-reactive protein and cortisol among women with acute coronary syndrome
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) coupled with depressive symptoms and elevated inflammatory markers can result in poorer health outcomes than ACS alone. To enhance understanding of the relationships between depressive symptoms and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and Cortisol) in economically disadvantaged women diagnosed with ACS, a descriptive secondary analysis was completed to examine the association over time (hospitalization, 3-months, and 6-months following hospitalization), between depressive symptoms and select inflammatory markers (e.g., C-reactive protein and Cortisol) in economically disadvantaged women with ACS. This study used Pearson product moment correlation coefficients to examine the relationships between depressive symptoms and inflammatory markers. The Beck's Depression Inventory II (BDI-11) instrument was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. C-reactive protein and Cortisol levels were the inflammatory markers evaluated over time. Troponin 1 levels confirmed that the women had experienced ACS and therefore met the inclusion criteria for the study. The number of participants who experienced depressive symptoms increased from admission (48.8%) to 3-month follow-up (57.5%) and then decreased to the 6-month evaluation (41%). Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and Cortisol) showed a decrease in levels from admission to 6-months follow-up which did not support the hypothesis. Although the hypothesis was not supported it is important to continue the search for biomarkers to serve as indicators of the outcomes of post-ACS interventions to treat symptoms of depression and to indicate when additional interventions are needed.