Reliability and concurrent validity between two-dimensional and three-dimensional evaluations of knee valgus during drop jumps




Ortiz, Alexis
Rosario-Canales, Martin
Rodriguez, Alejandro
Seda, Alexie
Figueroa, Carla
Venegas-Rios, Heidi L

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Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine


Purpose: The aim of this study was to establish the concurrent validity and reliability of four different two-dimensional (2D) video-based techniques for quantifying frontal plane knee kinematics during a 40 cm double-legged drop jump.

Participants and methods: A convenience sample of 16 healthy participants (nine males and seven females; age: [mean ± standard deviation] 25.5±2 years; body mass index: 24.33±2.98 kg/ m2) participated in this investigation. A total of five trials during a 40 cm drop jump maneuver with a countermovement jump were used as the functional task. Four knee valgus measures, such as two different frontal plane projection angle measures, knee-to-ankle separation ratio (KASR), and knee separation distance (KSD), were measured using 2D and three-dimensional (3D) systems. To generalize to the greater population of possible evaluators, the testers performing the biomechanical analyses were three novice physical therapists. Intra- and intertester intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were estimated for 2D analysis variables. ICCs were estimated for all measures between systems to determine concurrent validity of the 2D system.

Results: All four 2D measures showed good to excellent reliability (ICC: 0.89–0.99). KASR and KSD showed excellent correlation (ICC: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82–0.98 and ICC: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90–0.96, respectively) with the 3D system, while both methods of frontal plane projection angle showed poor to moderate correlation (ICC: 0–0.57) with the 3D system.

Conclusion: 2D KASR and KSD measures are cost effective, reliable, and highly correlated with the same measures using 3D techniques for the evaluation of knee valgus.



Dartfish, Vicon, Motion analysis, Correlation


This is the publisher’s version of an article that is available at Recommended citation: Ortiz, A., Rosario-Canales, M., Rodríguez, A., Seda, A., Figueroa, C., & Venegas-Ríos, H. (2016). Reliability and concurrent validity between two-dimensional and three-dimensional evaluations of knee valgus during drop jumps. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 65. This item has been deposited in accordance with publisher copyright and licensing terms and with the author’s permission.