Perception of hematopoietic stem cell donation of Vietnamese-Americans: A mixed methods study
ABSTRACT SUZETTE RENEE STONE PERCEPTION OF HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL DONATION OF VIETNAMESE-AMERICAN: A MIXED METHODS STUDY AUGUST 2019 The purpose of this study is to understand the perception of Vietnamese-American regarding hematopoietic stem cell donation. Donors are chosen based on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching which is dependent on ethnic background. Currently, Vietnamese-Americans are at a disadvantage in identifying a donor due low enrollment in the Be the Match donor registry and complex HLA typing. By understanding the perceptions of Vietnamese-Americans, modifiable characteristic can be addressed to encourage donor recruitment for the Vietnamese-American community for the National Marrow Donor Program. A convergent parallel mixed method research study design was utilized to collect and analyze data in effort to explore and describe the Vietnamese-American perceptions regarding stem cell donation. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed separately, then merged together for final analysis. The quantitative data were collected and measured with a survey including demographic questions, baseline awareness questions about stem cell transplant, and a modified Bone Marrow Intent Tool. The qualitative data were obtained through interviews using an expert developed interview guide on perceptions of stem cell donation. The Theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. The final sample was 121 for the quantitative portion and 25 for the qualitative portion. The results explain motivating and deterring factors for Vietnamese-American regarding hematopoietic stem cell donation within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Approval of other, knowledge, and fear were significant predictors of intent to donate. Helping others, approval of others, and value of knowledge were positively correlated with intent. Concerns about resources and fear and not trusting were negatively correlated with intent to donate. The surveys and interviews demonstrated a clear knowledge deficit about stem cell donation. Through a strategic educational strategy focused on modifiable factors, the Vietnamese-American community can be mobilized to increase the size and diversity of the donor pool.