The effects of mushroom-egg white blend products on satiety hormones and satiety sensations
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of mushroom-egg white blend product consumption on satiety sensations and satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) in overweight and obese individuals. Methods: Forty adults (men and women) struggling with weight loss or to maintain a healthy weight were recruited for this 16-week, randomized, single blended, cross-over study. Participants were randomized to consume 100g of egg white only (EWO) products (n=38) or mushroom-egg white blend (MEWB) products (n=33) daily. Each treatment lasted 6 weeks, with a 4-week washout period in between treatments. Anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, body composition via Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry; and satiety sensations via visual analogue scales (VAS) were collected from participants. Overnight fasted venous blood was collected to evaluate satiety biomarkers CCK, GLP-1, and PYY. All measurements were collected at the beginning and at the end of each treatment arm. Differences within and between treatments were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed ranked test. Results: A total of 18 participants completed the EWO treatment and 19 participants completed the MEWB treatment. At the end of the study, visceral adipose tissue volume significantly decreased (p≤0.05) after the EWO treatment, while android/gynoid fat ratio and android fat percentage significantly increased after the MEWB treatment. After 6 weeks of MEWB treatment, satiety sensations decreased albeit not reaching statistical significance. Post-prandial plasma levels of satiety biomarker CCK increased significantly (p≤0.05) after the MEWB treatment, while levels of GLP-1 and PYY increased, although not significantly. Although not included in the main outcomes of our study, post-prandial plasma levels of the hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) significantly decreased in the MEWB treatment. Other trends that were not significant include a decrease in plasma ghrelin after the EWO treatment and an increase in ghrelin levels after the MEWB treatment. A decrease in plasma leptin after both treatments was observed. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that incorporating mushrooms into egg white products may increase satiety hormones and improve biological responses of satiety, therefore promoting a state of energy balance in overweight and obese individuals.