Psychological well-being and related personal, social, and workplace environmental factors of staff in university settings
Assessing the extent of psychological well-being (PWB) of university staff and examining what factors have affected their PWB is a preliminary step to developing intervention programs that promote PWB and enhance productivity and worker engagement from the university perspective. The overall objectives of this dissertation were to clarify the workplace psychological distress concept and attributes related to PWB and to examine the level of PWB in current university staff and the relationships between their PWB and personal, social, and workplace environmental factors. This dissertation has been accomplished through studies resulting in two manuscripts.
For the first manuscript, a concept analysis was conducted to explain the intersection between the concept of workplace psychological distress (WPD) and personal, social, and workplace environmental factors of PWB. Strategies introduced by Walker and Avant’s conceptual analysis method were utilized to conceptualize WPD and its impact on employees. This research determined that the antecedents of WPD included an increase in job demands, lack of control, low support, and workplace bullying. The defining attributes of WPD were identified as extreme fatigue, role conflict, and time pressures. The consequences of WPD were determined to be the development of mental disorders, physical disorders, and loss in productivity.
The second manuscript was based on an empirical study conducted using a descriptive cross-sectional, correlational design to describe the level of PWB in university staff and identify personal, social, and workplace environmental factors related to their PWB. This study adopted Ryff’s (1989) PWB model, which addresses six domains of PWB: Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, Purpose in Life, Personal Growth, Positive Relationships, and Self-Acceptance, with the assumption that personal, social, and workplace environmental factors influence the PWB of university staff.
An 82-item PsychData survey containing four parts (i.e., demographics, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Work Factors Survey, Ryff’s PWB Scale) was used to collect data for this study. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the personal, social, and workplace environmental factors of the study sample and determine the level of PWB of university staff. Pearson’s correlational analysis was conducted to examine the relationships among the variables. Hierarchical multiple regression was performed to assess the impact of personal, social, and workplace environmental factors on the PWB of university staff.
This research study revealed a significant correlation between PWB and personal, social, and workplace environmental factors. This study provides helpful information for occupational health nurses (OHN) and other stakeholders (e.g., administrators, faculty, and staff) in university settings in assessing the level of PWB and related personal, social, and workplace environmental factors. Knowing the current PWB level and associated factors will enable OHNs and university administrators to devise strategies to promote the PWB of university staff. More studies are needed to monitor the PWB of university staff and relevant factors. The extensive investigation of PWB in academic settings, including faculty and students, and relationships among PWB of university staff, faculty, and staff is also recommended in future research.