Wellness in two developmental phases of employed adults




Bagwell, Marilyn

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The descriptive comparative and correlational study tested five null hypotheses to determine whether relationships and differences existed among male and female, developmentally-categorized, employed adults, their concept of health, and their lifestyle activities that promote health. A theoretical framework for the phenomenon of wellness was devised, based on Gibbs' (1972) definition of theory, Laffery's (1985a, 1985b, 1986) studies utilizing Smith's (1983) four models of health, and Pender's (1987) health promotion model identifying factors of health-promoting behavior. A sample of convenience comprised those anonymous blue-collar employees of two industrial plants, sited in a southwestern United States metropolis of 1.2 million persons, who returned the distributed questionnaires. A random sample (n = 160) of 40 males and 40 females was selected for each of two age groups: 26-44 and 45-65 years old. Data elicited by Laffery's Health Conception Scale (LHCS), the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP), and a researcher-devised Demographic Data Sheet were analyzed utilizing two-way analysis of variance, Pearson Product Moment Correlation, and Fisher's z\sp transformation for independent rs. Major findings of the study included: (1) Significant differences in scores (a) on the HPLP subscales of health responsibility and interpersonal support in relation to gender, and (b) between age groups on the exercise and nutrition scores of the HPLP. (2) A significant disordinal interaction between gender and age on the total LHCS, the LHCS subscale scores of role performance and adaptive health. (3) Significant relationships between (a) the total LHCS and the total HPLP scores, (b) the total LHCS score and the HPLP subscales scores of self-actualization, health responsibility, interpersonal support, and stress management, and (c) the LHCS role subscale score and the HPLP subscale scores of self-actualization and health responsibility. Conclusions drawn from the findings are (a) that the magnitude of an individual's health conception will positively influence the magnitude of the individual's health-promoting lifestyle behavior and (b) that, to a limited extent, lifestyle behavior may vary with health conception because of variance in the adult developmental stages and gender. Findings and conclusions of the study support the implication in the literature that identifying employees' concepts of health is valuable for planning wellness programs at an industrial site.



Health conception, Employed adults, Lifestyle, Wellness, Nursing theory