Refinement of the Measurement of Presence Scale
Presence is a concept vital to nursing practice and to the nurse patient relationship. Presence is considered a key concept in interpersonal, intrapersonal, and transpersonal phenomena. Although nursing literature has included presence since the 1970's, little research has been to measure it. The purpose of this study was to estimate reliability and validity of the Measurement of Presence Scale developed by Hines (1991). This methodological design also examined the relationship of presence, self-esteem, and demographic characteristics among registered nurses.
This random sample consisted of 210 predominately female registered nurses between the ages of 41 to 55. The majority was married, living with family, and practiced in a psychiatric setting. The mode for annual income was $40,001 to $50,000. Study instruments were the Measurement of Presence Scale to measure presence, the Measurement of Presence Visual Analogue Scale to measure presence, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale to measure self-esteem, and the demographic characteristics form.
The presence level and self-esteem level among subjects was high with respective means of 231, SD = 16.52 and 34, SD = 4.46. The mean of the MOPVAS was 85, SD = 1.73. Reliability estimates provided support for both the Measurement of Presence Scale with an alpha = .9106 and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale alpha = .8571. Internal consistency estimate for the Foust & Hines Measurement of Presence Scale was .8512. Validity was supported with low correlations of MOPS and MOPVAS r = .263 (p = .01) and MOPS and RSES r = .329 (p = .01). Factor analysis did not produce the same subscale factors reported by Hines, but did produce similar ones.
This study indicates support for measurement of presence. Presence was supported as a multidimensional concept identified by registered nurses as important in their practice.