Nursing student training, perception, and behavior in tobacco cessation counseling: A randomized experimental study
A randomized experimental two-group repeated measures design was employed in this study using Bandura's self-efficacy learning theory as the theoretical foundation. The main purpose of this research was to study whether the student nurses in the experimental group receiving the Rx for Change tobacco-cessation training could increase their general self-efficacy and frequency of counseling behaviors at two-weeks and eight-weeks post-training compared to the student nurses in attention control training. With a response rate of 95%, 130 student nurses comprised the sample. A mixed model ANOVA found a significant interaction between group type and time, F (1,128) = 17.654, p <.000. Self-efficacy for the experimental group improved over lime while those in the control group experienced a drop in self-efficacy. Six independent-sample t-tests were also used to test differences in the number of counseling behaviors between the two groups. A Bonferroni correction factor set the alpha at .008. Total tobacco-counseling minutes were significantly more for the experimental group: [t (128) = 2.65, p = .009]. The t-tests for the five tobacco-counseling behaviors revealed no significant differences between the control and experimental groups. In summary, the experimental group had higher general self-efficacy scores at the end of the 10-week clinical semester than the control group, and also spent more time in the tobacco counseling behaviors. This study demonstrated the efficacy of using a three-hour Rx for Change Internet tobacco-educational intervention on improving student nurses' self-efficacy and time commitment in their clinical rotations. These findings can broaden nurse educators understanding that by using evidence-based practice guidelines as a teaching modality via the Internet, improvements can be seen in student self-efficacy and time commitment in their clinical behaviors.