Taking action: Reciprocity in reading and writing within early intervention



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In 2004, the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, in direct alignment with No Child Left Behind, allowed schools to allocate 15% of their special education funds to improve instruction and provide increasingly expert reading instruction to students at-risk for reading difficulties. Response to Intervention was implemented within schools across the country, and researchers began to study implementation and intervention practices. Researchers have studied a variety of interventions that differ in complexity, however most research tends to evaluate extremely focused interventions aimed at a particular skill or specific task (Pressley, Graham, & Harris, 2006).
The current study moves beyond a simplified, isolated perspective and investigated a more complex view of literacy learning. The purpose of the current study was to describe how reciprocity in reading and writing supports early literacy learning during a comprehensive approach to intervention instruction. Specifically, the study sought to understand the potential power of reciprocity through the careful and direct observation of reading and writing behaviors of children during intervention instruction. The study utilized a descriptive, micro-analysis approach within the context of intervention instruction to analyze the participants’ actions during a variety of literacy events. Findings are presented and discussed as themes of reciprocity with relevant examples from the data. This study hopes to enhance the theory and research base related to literacy intervention instruction, inform teachers and administrators about intervention instructional practices, and enrich how the field understands the relationship between reading and writing.



Reciprocity, Reading, Writing, Intervention, Response to Intervention, RTI