Incontinence and coping behaviors of elderly persons: Instrument development
An exploratory study to test validity and reliability of a researcher-developed questionnaire which measures the 10 areas of coping with urinary incontinence in community residing elderly of the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan area. In addition, differences in coping between males and females and age groups were examined. The relationship between perceived severity of incontinence and frequency of coping behavior was also tested.
Using psychometric theory and Mitteness' theory of urinary incontinence, a 139 item self-report, interval level, norm referenced scale was developed. Content validity was estimated by a panel of experts. As a result of the expert evaluation, the Coping With Urinary Incontinence scale was reduced from 139 items to 64 items. A pilot study determined initial internal consistency estimates for the scale.
One hundred seventy three community residing incontinent older adults participated in the major study. The demographic data included age, gender and perceived severity of their bladder disturbance. Estimates of internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the scale were computed. The Cronbach's Alpha for internal consistency reliability for the 39 item scale was.9359 (standardized item alpha =.9526).
The Coping With Urinary Incontinence Scale, based on the SPSSx Varimax Factor Analysis, was conceptually interpreted. Ten subscales were created and named.
Using a chi-square test of independence, 8 items of the final 39 item scale showed significant difference between the age groups and the frequency of coping final 39 item scale were significant at the.01 level. Concluding that age was a significant factor in how the participants responded to these questions.
Using a chi-square of independence, all items of the Coping With Urinary Incontinence Scale were independent of each other when compared to gender and perceived severity of urinary incontinence. Thus, gender and participant's perceived severity of their urinary incontinence were not major factors in how the participants responded to the instrument items.
The Coping With Urinary Incontinence Scale demonstrated high internal consistency, high stability, and strong construct validity when used with community residing incontinent elderly persons. While the beginning validity and reliability estimations were strong, additional testing of this instrument is needed.