Stress and self-esteem in parents of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder




Slemmons, Marina Fowler

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Using a methodological design and confirmatory factor analysis, the fit of theoretically derived models of parenting stress, coping and self-esteem in 303 parents of children with ADHD were examined. Parenting stress was measured using selected subscales of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Coping was measured using the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOC). Parent self-esteem was measured by the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC). Prior to completing the confirmatory analysis, internal consistency and exploratory findings were examined. The proposed three factor model for parenting stress was not identified and could not be estimated. A two factor model and a unidimensional model suggested by exploratory factor analysis were specified and resulted in models with improper estimates. Exploratory factor analysis of the PSI items revealed that the items did not load on the appropriate subscales. Without a stable factor structure at the item level, use of scale scores in the confirmatory model could not be justified. A unidimensional model of coping was proposed. Exploratory factor analysis of the woe using the scale scores suggested a three factor model. Both models were estimated and were found to have poor fit statistics. Again, exploratory factor analysis did not support the factor structure reported by the author of the woe. The proposed unidimensional model of parenting self-esteem did not meet the criteria for identification of models. Instead, the model was respecified with 16 observed indicators loading on two latent variables. The instrument was revised based on item analysis. This resulted in a 13- item instrument with an alpha of .8411. Exploratory analysis revealed two factors with items loading on the appropriate subscales. Three models were estimated in the confirmatory analysis using 16, 13, and 11 items. The 11- item model showed the best fit with the data having a nonsignificant chi-square and acceptable goodness of fit indices. However, two of the parameters showed improper estimates and further refinement of the model was not pursued. Unfortunately, no models were found for any of the constructs which fit the data from these parents and group differences could not be addressed.



Health and environmental sciences, Psychology, Behaviorial sciences, Mental health, Stress, Nursing, Self image, Hyperactivity, Children & youth, Attention deficit disorder