The investigation of on-site sponsorship activations and consumer-focused sponsorship outcomes
The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographics and lifestyles of attendants in an Independent Professional Baseball (IPB) team and determine the effects of on-site activations on three types of consumer-focused sponsorship outcomes. Also, this study compared the impact of various on-site activations in explaining the variance of the three types of consumer-focused sponsorship outcomes. Data were collected at the three consecutive IPB games during the month of August 2011. A total of 194 participants 18 years or older completed a self-administrated questionnaire. Three regression analyses were used, in which brand preference, purchase intentions, and percentage of brand awareness were used as the dependent variables, respectively, and five on-site sponsorship activations (signage, PA announcement, advertising, in-game promotion, and product display/sampling/sales) as the independent variables. The findings of this study revealed significant relationships between on-site activations and consumer-focused sponsorship outcomes. Product display/sampling/sales and signage bad significant contributions to brand awareness, and so did signage to purchase intentions. In terms of the effectiveness of on-site activations, the findings indicated thal product display/sampling/sales has the most impact in explaining the variance in brand awareness and signage has the most impact in explaining the variance in purchase intentions; in addition, sponsors employing in-game promotion boasted high brand awareness rate despite no significant relationship between in-game promotion and consumer-focused sponorship outcomes. Also, this study provided recommendations, based on the results of the demographic and lifestyles of the IPB spectators, to maximize the benefits of both sponsor and sponsee. The findings of this study suggested that sponsors should arrange multiple sponsorhip activities in a sponsored event for obtaining better consumer-focused sponsorship outcomes. Sponsorship activations with high or low level of interaction with audience generate positive impact on the sponsorship outcomes. In order to obtain greater consumer-focused sponsorship outcomes, sponsors can consider the inclusion of sponsorship activation featuring a high level of interaction with audiences (e.g., product display/sampling/sales and in-game promotion) into sponsorship package. It provides the guideline of strategic implementation of sponsorship activation to increase return of investment on sponsorship.