How are African American parents involved in their children's education, prekindergarten through sixth grade?
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This study examined African American parents and primary caregivers and their involvement in their children's early childhood education. Epstein's Model of Parental Involvement and Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Systems Theory were utilized as the theoretical frameworks. The Parent and School Survey (PASS), the Parent Involvement in School (PISC), the Parent Perception Teacher Outreach (PPTO), the Parent Involvement at Home (PIH) and three focus group sessions were employed to collect data. Questionnaires were collected from 122 parents of prekindergarten through sixth grade students from a church membership and the church's Summer Youth Program located in Dallas, Texas. Findings indicated African American parents were involved in the education of their children pre-kindergarten through sixth grade. This study found the following: African American parents are involved in their children's early childhood education as measured by Parent and School Survey (PASS), the Parent Involvement in School Scale (PISC), the Parents Perceived Teacher Outreach (PPTO), and the Parents Involvement at Home (PIN). Additionally, the findings support Epstein's Model of Parental Involvement. African American parents and primary caregivers of this study were participants in all six types of the parental involvement model which include (1) parenting, (2) communicating, (3) volunteering, (4) learning at home, (5) decision making, (6) and collaborating with community. Focus groups conversations support the statistical findings of this sample. Practices for parents, teachers, and future research are recommended.