Effectiveness of video modeling on motor performance for children with autism spectrum disorder
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The newly adopted Every Student Succeeds Act (Lam, Mercer, Podolsky, & Darling-Hammond, 2016) requires that school districts use evidence-based practices for student outcomes. Evidence-based practices are based on supported research that are specific to different fields within education (e.g., physical education) and have also reported evidence of increased positive behaviors with specific groups of students (e.g., children with autism spectrum disorder [ASD]). The development of fundamental motor skills in children with ASD is dependent on teachers using evidence-based practices (e.g., picture task cards [PTC], video modeling). The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of three types of motor performance instructional strategies (i.e., PTCs, ExerciseBuddy application [EB App], combination) on teaching motor performance to children with ASD. Six children (CA = 5 to 9 years) were purposively selected with ASD. A randomized alternating-treatment design with no baseline was conducted 3 days a week, for 15 min, for 4 consecutive weeks. To determine the raw score for each participant, the investigator and two research assistants evaluated the performance criteria of the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (Ulrich, 2018) and established an inter-rater reliability score of 88% (range = 73 to 97%). Based on visual analysis of the data, the average of overlapping data between protocol conditions across participants approached 100%. Within the limitations of this investigation, it was concluded that there was no functional relation between PTCs, EB App, or combination instructional protocols during motor performance for children with ASD.