Effect of integrated high fidelity simulation in knowledge perceived self-efficacy and satisfaction of nurse practitioner students in newborn assessment
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This quasi-experimental non equivalent control-group research study compared knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, and satisfaction between nurse practitioner (NP) students enrolled an advanced health assessment course who received traditional didactic lecture (n = 23) compared with NP students who received lecture integrated with a high-fidelity simulator for the newborn assessment content (n = 49). Additionally, the principles regarding knowledge, self-efficacy, and satisfaction, were related to the present body of knowledge in the field of health education. The following instruments were used: Newborn Assessment Knowledge Tool regarding newborn assessment, at 3 time points: before lecture, after lecture, and 4 weeks later; Perceived Self-Efficacy Tool for Newborn Assessment, regarding how confident the student felt about performing a newborn assessment at the same 3 times; and a Educational Session Satisfaction Tool post-lecture. Data analysis included: descriptive statistics, chi-square, t-tests, MANCOVA, repeated measures, and Pearson's correlation. Statistically significant differences were observed between the knowledge pre-test and post-test 1 (p < .001) and between the knowledge pre-test and post-test 2 (p < .001), but not between the knowledge post-test 1 and post test 2 (p = .59). When controlling for confounding variables, there were statistically significant differences in knowledge scores on both the knowledge pre-test (p = .04) and post-test 1 (p <.001) between the groups. There were statistically significant differences within each group between the self-efficacy pre-test and post-test 1 (p < .001) and between the self-efficacy pre-test and post-test 2 (p <.001), but not between self-efficacy post-test 1 and post-test 2 (p = 0.9). Between the groups, there were no significant differences in perceived self-efficacy scores before lecture (pre-test), after lecture (post-test #1), or at the 4 week follow-up (post-test #2). No statistically significant differences were noted between the groups on satisfaction (p = .27). High-fidelity simulation integrated within lecture content may be used to help bridge theory and practice, however, demonstration alone may not be enough. Additionally, integration of simulation into lecture takes additional lecture time. Further research into this method of instruction needs to be explored for those in health education professions.