Cross-cultural experience, performance feedback, model competence, and cultural self-efficacy: analysis of a model
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The purpose of this cross-sectional, nonexperimental, survey design study was to test theorized sources of self-efficacy by examining factors which might explain the variance in a proposed model of perceived cultural self-efficacy in nursing students. The convenience sample consisted of 3 51 nursing students enrolled in eight associate degree and baccalaureate degree programs in the Midwest. Stepwise multiple regression was used to measure relationships among crosS··Cultural experience, performance feedback in cultural diversity education, model competence, and perceived cultural self-efficacy. Cultural Self-efficacy was measured with the Bernal and Froman Cultural Self-efficacy Scale (CSES). Cross-cultural experience was operationalized as the sum of responses to seven questions which included the number of years the respondent lived outside the United States, the number offoreign languages spoken, the percentage of interaction with persons from a different cultural heritage and the percentage of patient from a different cultural heritage for whom care v a provided P rformance fi edback of cultural diversity education was measured with the Performance Feedback Scale (PFS). Evaluation and review from a panel of five nursing faculty with extensive transcultural experiences supported the construct and content validity of the PFS. Model competence was measured by the Model Evaluation Scale (MES). Data analysis revealed that cross-cultural experience, performance feedback in cultural diversity, and model competence significantly explained 13.2% (p = .000) ofthe variance in perceived cultural self-efficacy. Results showed a statistically significant relationship with cross-cultural experience, performance feedback in cultural diversity education, model competence, and perceived cultural self-efficacy. Findings suggest that three factors positively influence a nursing student's cultural self-efficacy: Cross-cultural experiences, cultural diversity education in their nursing programs that includes positive performance feedback from nursing faculty, and role modeling by culturally competent nurses.