Family and peer relationships in a residential youth sample: Exploring unique, non-linear, and interactive associations with depressive symptoms and suicide risk
Rivers, Alannah Shelby
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Close relationships are consequential for youth depressive symptoms and suicide risk, but nuanced research examining intersecting factors is needed to improve identification and intervention. This study examines a clinical, residential sample of 939 adolescents and young adults ages 10 to 23 years old (M = 15.84, SD = 1.53; 97.7% white, 99.5% non-Hispanic, 55% female). The final model found that family conflict, parental criticism, verbal bullying, and interactions with friends were associated with depressive symptoms in the expected directions, and there were significant interactions with family, peer, and demographic variables. However, most associations with suicide risk were indirect. Associations involving family factors, peer factors, depressive symptoms, and suicide are not always straightforward, and should be understood within a microsystemic context.