The effects of distraction on preoperative anxiety in preschool and school-age children: A literature review
Wahid, Shahla Abdul
MetadataShow full item record
Children experience high levels of anxiety before surgery. Preoperative anxiety interferes with anesthesia induction compliance and is associated with many short and long-term postoperative complications The aim of this integrative review was to evaluate the impact of distraction methods on preoperative anxiety in preschool and school-age children compared to standard of care or conventional methods. A systematic search of literature was conducted using PubMed and CINHAL databases. We found 15 full-text articles in English published, between the years 2015-2019 on preschool and school-age children on PubMed, CINHAL, and keyword search according to inclusion criteria. The tools used to measure the children’s anxiety included a personal information from, separation scoring, index of clinical stress score, modified Yale preoperative assessment scale, the state-trait anxiety inventory for children, post hospitalization behavior questionnaire, Hamilton anxiety rating scale, and vital signs. Medical clowns, integrated art therapy, therapeutic play, “Play-doh”, computer games, books, and music, video games, toys, music, books, virtual reality, smartphone, relaxation-guided imagery, and iPads were used for creating distraction to reduce anxiety levels during parental separation and the preoperative period. Distraction is a safe, timely, and cost-effective non-pharmacological anxiolytic intervention that can be performed by nurses.