Role adequacy of pediatric outpatients undergoing surgery
The problem in this study was to determine whether or not a significant difference in role adequacy existed between pediatric outpatients who attended a group role play program and pediatric outpatients who did not attend such a program. The study also sought to determine whether or not a significant difference in state anxiety existed between mothers who attended a group role play program with their children and mothers who did not attend such a program with their children. The convenient sample of the ex post facto comparative study consisted of 50 children and their mothers who attended a role play program prior to the child's outpatient surgery and 50 children and their mothers who did not attend such a program. The children were between 3 and 9 years of age and had not had surgery or been hospitalized within the previous 6 months. Role adequacy of the children was measured pre- and postoperatively by the Prehospital and Posthospital Behavior Questionnaires and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to test the mothers' anxiety preoperatively. Analysis of covariance tested the hypotheses with the level of significance at .05. There were no significant differences between the groups in the child's postoperative level of role adequacy when controlling for the preoperative level of role adequacy, the mothers' state anxiety and age and gender of the child, but findings suggested that the younger the child, the lower the level of role adequacy. No significant difference was found between the groups in the mother's state anxiety preoperatively when the effects of trait anxiety and age and gender of the child were controlled. It was concluded that the theoretical framework of the Roy Adaptation Model of Nursing did not provide evidence that the role play program enhanced role adequacy. Appropriate role cues need to be identified and research to identify other variables influencing role adequacy is suggested.