|dc.description.abstract||Masked depression and its maladaptive behavioral
equivalents are damaging the health of today's adolescent.
This experimental study of promoting health in 122 nonclinically
depressed junior and senior high school
adolescents, ages 12 to 19, was conducted to test the
effectiveness of two nursing interventions: values therapy
and relaxation exercises combined (T1) and relaxation
-exercises only (T2). Academic underachievement, personal
values incongruence and tension were measured as behavioral
equivalents of depression. A Solomon four group design was
used to test four null hypotheses. The theoretical
framework combined Adaptation-Level Theory with the Health
Promotion Model and addendumed values-attitude schema with
a proposed health behaviors continuum.
In Part I, 259 subjects were pretested using the
Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression, FombyHealth/Health Promotion Values, and Relaxation SelfAssessment
scales. A sample of 122 randomly selected
subjects, scoring >16 on CES-D and stratified by school,
gender, and grade average, was randomly assigned to T1, T2,
or no treatment groups.
In Part 2, once a week for four weeks, 33 subjects,
guided by the nurse investigator, discussed pressing
problems, examined their pretested values, and performed
taped relaxation exercises; 28 performed taped relaxation
exercises only. Sixty-one subjects received no treatment.
All 259 subjects were posttested. Findings were (1) on
pretest 89% of the population were above the CES-D >16
(possible range Oto 60) indicative of depression (range 16
to 46); (2) on posttest 91% were depressed (range 16 to
57); (3) on posttest a decrease to 79% occurred in the
sample of 122 subjects (range 14 to 28); (4) T1 was
superior to T2 and no treatment for all ages; (5) a -11
point difference in CES-D scores and +10 point difference
in grade averages occurred between T1 and no treatment
groups in senior high subjects; (6) on posttest the value
health for juniors and health, health promotion, happiness,
and helpful for seniors were significant; and (7) for all
ages health (being healthy) is valued high but health
promotion (acting to become healthier) low.
Confirmation of the preva lence of depression and the
positive effects of values therapy and relaxation exercises
deserves attention by nurses, school personnel, parents,
and others. Incongruence in the value placed on health and
health promotion has implications for health planners.
Health promotion constitutes the outcome of nursing
intervention s on depressed adolescents.||en_US