Development of the Health Motivation Assessment Inventory
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What are the determinants (variables) that produce and influence the motivation of health promotional behaviors in working adults, and how do these variables interact? The desire to examine why individuals practice (or fail to practice) behaviors or actions believed to be positive for health precipitated this study. Identification and examination of the variables that individually, or collectively, work to influence behaviors, with regard to health promotion, is essential to nursing if the cooperation and participation of the client is to be elicited in his/her own care. Health Motivation is defined as: constantly changing, multifaceted, interacting forces (either perceived or actual) that affect choices and result in behavior or actions that influence an individual's health. Utilizing the Health Motivation Model (a modification of the Health Belief Model), and Classic Measurement Theory, the Health Motivation Assessment Inventory (HMAI) was developed to measure the concept of Health Motivation. To test the instrument and begin estimation of validity and reliability, the HMAI was administered to a convenience sample of 285 working adults at two large companies. Alpha coefficients were used to examine internal consistency reliability. Results showed that the instrument, as a whole, possessed internal consistency with Alphas greater than the desired 0.7. In addition two of the six subscales had sufficient alpha values. The other four subscale alphas showed promise, as two were in excess of 0.6 and the other two greater than.55. To begin estimation of construct validity, factor analysis was employed to analyze relationships between the items of the instrument and test the Health Motivation Model. The factor analysis was favorable with at least three items per subscale possessing a factor loading greater than.40. Therefore, it was concluded that with some modifications, the instrument will be useful in conducting research on the motivation of health promotional practices.